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Antibody Humanization and Affinity Maturation: Services and Platforms, 2017 - 2030

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    August 2017

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Example Insights

  1. Globally, around 60 companies offer antibody humanization and / or affinity maturation services / platforms. Majority of these companies (69%) offer services / platforms for both antibody humanization and affinity maturation.
  2. More than 60% of the services / platforms providers have been established in the last decade alone, indicating that there is significant opportunity in this domain. Of the companies that revealed their revenue model, close to 70% have adopted a fee-for-service model while 15% operate on a shared-risk business model. Platform out-licensing is adopted by the remaining 15% of these companies.
  3. Close to 35% of the companies provide these services for antibodies derived from mice. However, several companies are expanding their services portfolio to provide humanization and affinity maturation services for antibodies derived from other animal models, such as camel, chicken, rabbit and rat.
  4. In terms of the methods used for antibody humanization, around 35% of companies still use traditional CDR grafting approaches for antibody humanization. However, around 10% of stakeholders in the industry currently claim to be using a modified CDR grafting approach. Some of these companies include (indicative list, in alphabetical order) Abzena, AvantGen, ACROBiosystems, BIOTEM, Rx Biosciences, ProteoGenix and WuXi Biologics.
  5. In recent years, various companies have begun to apply novel methods, such as SDR grafting, shotgun mutagenesis and CDR grafting coupled to deimmunization, to carry out antibody humanization. Some of the key players that utilize these methods are (indicative list, in alphabetical order) Abzena, Creative Biolabs, Integral Molecular, LakePharma, Lonza, Syd Labs and Yurogen Biosystems.
  6. Targeted mutagenesis, random mutagenesis and chain shuffling remain the most widely used methods for antibody affinity maturation. These methods are adopted by close to 70% of the affinity maturation services / platforms providers.
  7. The growing preference for these conventional antibody optimization methods has spurred a lot of effort in the advancement of existing humanization and affinity maturation techniques. This trend is reflected in recent publications as well. In fact, more than 34% of the publications on antibody humanization (Oct 2014 - Jun 2017) have highlighted novel humanization techniques other than traditional CDR grafting.
  8. Driven by the growing pipeline of antibody based therapeutics, the demand for contract services providers for drug discovery and optimization is anticipated to increase in the coming years. In terms of the geographical distribution, North America (56%) and Europe (26%) are currently the major hubs for antibody related services. We expect these regions to continue to dominate the market in future as well.

Overview

First discovered in 1975, monoclonal antibodies are considered to be one of the fastest growing therapy segments in the biopharmaceutical industry. In the year 2016, Humira, a monoclonal antibody, generated revenues worth more than USD 16 billion to become the highest selling drug. With a strong development pipeline and high clinical success rate, the market continues to witness increasing adoption of antibody based therapies and products.

The growing industry has faced / continues to face several challenges. One of the biggest hurdles to the growth of antibody based products has been the lack of technical know-how across different stages of drug discovery. This situation is particularly true for the more traditional pharmaceutical companies that have recently ventured into the targeted therapies domain. Some of these companies have mitigated this issue by making specific acquisitions and / or hiring trained personnel to cater to the requirements. However, several others have preferred to out-source these steps to contract services providers. In fact, over the years, a number of services providers offering antibody discovery have been established, and have grown to become an indispensable part of the biopharmaceutical market.

Certain steps of the antibody drug discovery process require advanced expertise, and companies offering these specialized services have attracted significant attention of drug / therapy developers. Two such specific services are to reduce antibody immunogenicity (humanization) and enhance its affinity (affinity maturation). Immunogenicity has continued to be one of the most limiting factors of the clinical success of antibodies. Antibody humanization has emerged as an extensively studied method for reducing antibody immunogenicity. There are several contract services providers that are providing novel technologies beyond the traditional methods to facilitate antibody humanization as well as to enhance antibody affinity. These contract services providers have enabled the drug developers to develop therapeutic antibodies with low immunogenicity and high affinity.

 

Scope of Report

The “Antibody Humanization and Affinity Maturation: Services and Platforms, 2017-2030” report provides a comprehensive view on the current landscape and the future outlook of the antibody humanization and affinity maturation contract research services and platforms market. The study presents an in-depth analysis of a diverse set of companies that provide such services across different regions worldwide. In addition to other elements, the report covers the following:

  • The current state of the market with respect to key players along with information on location of these companies, their expertise across antibody humanization and / or affinity maturation, the methodology adopted for providing these services and the revenue / business models used.
  • Elaborate profiles of established / emerging players that have expertise in providing antibody humanization and / or affinity maturation services, highlighting the methodologies adopted by these companies and their recent partnerships and collaborations in the antibody humanization and affinity maturation domain. The profiles also have a detailed future outlook section, detailing the likely strategies that may be adopted by these players to fuel growth in the foreseen future.
  • An analysis of the most active regions in terms of humanization and affinity maturation services for biologics, featuring schematic representations on world maps clearly indicating the location of active services hubs.
  • A benchmark analysis to provide a means to compare existing capabilities within respective peer groups and help stakeholders in the industry to identify ways to achieve a competitive edge over contemporary players.
  • A publication analysis representing recent trends in research on antibody humanization across various academic institutes, highlighting the ongoing innovation in this domain.
  • A SWOT analysis, which elaborates on the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats related to players engaged in this domain.
  • A go-to-guide for outsourcing, representing different models that can be used to facilitate the decision whether companies should out-source a particular activity / operation, or not.

One of the key objectives of the report was to understand the primary growth drivers and estimate the future size of the market. Based on parameters, such as number of projects being out-sourced, number of projects undertaken per year and expected pricing, we have provided an informed estimate of the likely evolution of the opportunity for antibody humanization and affinity maturation services providers for the period 2017-2030. The base year for the report is 2017. To account for the uncertainties associated with these services and to add robustness to our model, we have provided three forecast scenarios portraying conservative, base and optimistic tracks of the market’s evolution.

The research, analysis and insights presented in this report are backed by a deep understanding of key insights gathered from both secondary and primary research. Actual figures have been sourced and analyzed from publicly available data. The opinions and insights presented in this study were also influenced by discussions conducted with experts in this field. These included contributions from Aaron Sato (CSO of LakePharma), Andrew C.R. Martin (Reader in Bioinformatics and Computational Biology at University College London) and Thomas Schirrmann (General Manager of YuMab).

Contents

Chapter 2  provides an executive summary of the report. It offers a high level view on where the antibody humanization and affinity maturation market is headed in the mid to long term.

Chapter 3  explains the basics of antibody based therapies, including details on their mechanisms of action and developmental history. The chapter addresses the challenges associated with therapeutic antibodies and gives a historical overview of the methods that have been established to address these challenges. Specifically, the chapter highlights the various techniques that have been employed for reducing antibody immunogenicity (humanization techniques) and enhancing affinity.

Chapter 4  includes information on close to 60 companies that offer antibody humanization and / or affinity maturation services. The chapter presents the results of detailed research conducted in this domain, highlighting the presence of various services providers across the world and the rise of new players, information on the most commonly adopted methods for humanization and affinity maturation of antibodies, and specific geographical pockets that have emerged as hubs for such services.

Chapter 5  provides comprehensive profiles of some of the established players in this field. Each profile features a detailed technology overview, information on financial performance, expertise in antibody humanization and / or affinity maturation and affiliated recent developments. The profiles also have a detailed future outlook section, highlighting the likely strategies that may be adopted by these players to fuel growth in the foreseen future.

Chapter 6  presents profiles of some of the active players in this domain. It highlights the expertise of these players across antibody humanization and affinity maturation. The chapter outlines the various methodologies that the companies have adopted for these services, as well as presents an overview of offerings that the companies provide under these services.

Chapter 7  presents a benchmark analysis of the various players engaged in this domain. It highlights the capabilities of the companies in terms of their expertise across antibody humanization and / or affinity maturation. The analysis allows companies to compare their existing capabilities within and beyond their peer groups, and identify opportunities to become more competitive in the industry. 

Chapter 8  provides a publication analysis highlighting the recent trends in published literature on antibody humanization. The chapter provides details on novel methods, as well as the attempts that are being made to modify traditional CDR grafting for antibody humanization.

Chapter 9  features an elaborate SWOT analysis, representing the various strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats associated with the services providers engaged in this domain.

Chapter 10  presents comprehensive projections on how the antibody humanization and affinity maturation services market is likely to grow over the next 10 years. We have segregated the financial opportunity separately for the two services (humanization and affinity maturation) and across different geographies (North America, Europe and Asia). All our predictions are backed by robust analysis of data procured from both secondary and primary sources. Due to uncertainties surrounding some of the assumptions within our forecast model, we have presented three different growth tracks outlined as the conservative, base and optimistic scenarios.

Chapter 11  presents a go-to-guide for outsourcing various steps in the drug discovery and development processes. The chapter presents various models and provides case studies, for each model, in order to clearly outline the decision making process related to out-sourcing.

Chapter 12  summarizes the overall report. In this chapter, we provide a recap of the key takeaways from the report, and express our independent opinions related to the research and analysis described in the previous chapters.

Chapter 13  is a collection of interview transcripts of the discussions that were held with key stakeholders in this market. We have presented the details of interviews held with Aaron Sato (CSO of LakePharma), Andrew C.R. Martin (Reader in Bioinformatics and Computational Biology at University College London) and Thomas Schirrmann (General Manager of YuMab).

Chapter 14  is an appendix, which provides tabulated data and numbers for all the figures provided in the report.

Chapter 15  is an appendix, which provides the list of companies and organizations mentioned in the report.

Table of Contents

1. PREFACE
1.1. Scope of the Report
1.2. Research Methodology
1.3. Chapter Outlines
 
2. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
 
3. INTRODUCTION
3.1. Chapter Overview
3.2. Antibody: Historical Background
3.3. Antibody: Structure
3.4. Antibody: Mechanism of Action
3.5. Polyclonal and Monoclonal Antibodies
3.6. Bispecific Antibodies
3.7. Monoclonal Antibodies: A Rapidly Growing Industry
3.7.1. Monoclonal Antibodies: Hurdles and Challenges
3.7.2. Monoclonal Antibodies: Immunogenicity
3.7.2.1. Rational Approaches
3.7.2.1.1. Chimerization
3.7.2.1.2. CDR-Grafting
3.7.2.1.3. Resurfacing
3.7.2.1.4. Superhumanization
3.7.2.1.5. Human String Content Optimization
3.7.2.2. Non-Rational or Empirical Approaches
3.7.2.2.1. Framework Region Library
3.7.2.2.2. Guided Selection
3.7.2.2.3. Framework Region Shuffling
3.7.2.3. Other Methods
3.7.2.3.1. Shotgun Mutagenesis
3.7.2.3.2. Transgenic Animals
3.7.2.4. Monoclonal Antibodies: From Murine to Human
3.7.3. Monoclonal Antibodies: Affinity and Affinity Maturation
3.7.3.1. In Vivo Affinity Maturation
3.7.3.2. In Vitro Affinity Maturation
3.7.3.2.1. Display Technologies
3.7.3.2.2. Other Methods
3.8. Monoclonal Antibodies: Key Enablers
3.9. Monoclonal Antibodies: The Future
 
4. COMPETITIVE LANDSCAPE
4.1. Chapter Overview
4.2. Antibody Humanization and Affinity Maturation Services and Platforms Providers: Market Landscape
4.2.1. Antibody Humanization and Affinity Maturation Services and Platforms Providers: Distribution by Specialization
4.2.2. Antibody Humanization and Affinity Maturation Services and Platforms Providers: Distribution by Type of Offering
4.2.3. Antibody Humanization and Affinity Maturation Services and Platforms Providers: Distribution by Year of Establishment and Specialization
4.2.4. Antibody Humanization and Affinity Maturation Services and Platforms Providers: Distribution by Humanization Method Used
4.2.5. Antibody Humanization and Affinity Maturation Services and Platforms Providers: Distribution by Affinity Maturation Method Used
4.2.6. Antibody Humanization and Affinity Maturation Services and Platforms Providers: Distribution by Drug Discovery Expertise
4.2.7. Antibody Humanization and Affinity Maturation Services and Platforms Providers: Distribution by Geographical Location
4.2.8. Antibody Humanization and Affinity Maturation Services and Platforms Providers: Distribution by Source Animal
4.2.9. Antibody Humanization and Affinity Maturation Services and Platforms Providers: Distribution by Business Model
 
4.3. Antibody Humanization and Affinity Maturation Services and Platforms Market: Key Insights
4.3.1. Outsourcing is More Prevalent as Compared to In-house Development
4.3.2. Flexible Service Models are Likely to Attract Drug Developers
4.3.3. Despite the Rise of Fully Human Antibody Generating Platform, the Low Fees and Emergence of Novel Humanization Techniques is Likely to Sustain Interest in this Domain
4.3.4. Humanization and Affinity Maturation Services are Potential Opportunities for Antibody Discovery Services Providers
 
5. COMPANY PROFILES: SERVICES AND PLATFORMS PROVIDERS
5.1. Chapter Overview
5.2. Abzena
5.2.1. Company Overview
5.2.2. Financial Information
5.2.3. Humanization and Affinity Maturation: Services and Platforms
5.2.3.1. Humanization
5.2.3.2. Affinity Maturation
5.2.4. Recent Developments
5.2.4.1. Collaborations and Partnerships
5.2.4.2. Expansions
5.2.5. Future Outlook
 
5.3. Fusion Antibodies
5.3.1. Company Overview
5.3.2. Financial Information
5.3.3. Humanization
5.3.4. Recent Developments
5.3.4.1. Collaborations and Partnerships
5.3.5. Future Outlook
 
5.4. GenScript
5.4.1. Company Overview
5.4.2. Financial Information
5.4.3. Humanization: Services and Platforms
5.4.4. Recent Developments
5.4.5. Future Outlook
 
5.5. Innovative Targeting Solutions
5.5.1. Company Overview
5.5.2. Financial Information
5.5.3. Humanization and Affinity Maturation: Services and Platforms
5.5.3.1. Humanization
5.5.3.2. Affinity Maturation
5.5.4. Recent Developments
5.5.4.1. Collaborations and Partnerships
5.5.5. Future Outlook
 
5.6. LakePharma
5.6.1. Company Overview
5.6.2. Financial Information
5.6.3. Humanization and Affinity Maturation: Services and Platforms
5.6.3.1. Humanization
5.6.3.2. Affinity Maturation
5.6.4. Recent Developments
5.6.4.1. Collaborations and Partnerships
5.6.4.2. Expansions
5.6.5. Future Outlook
 
5.7. XOMA
5.7.1. Company Overview
5.7.2. Financial Information
5.7.3. Humanization and Affinity Maturation: Services and Platforms
5.7.3.1. Humanization
5.7.3.2. Affinity Maturation
5.7.4. Recent Developments
5.7.4.1. Collaborations and Partnerships
5.7.5. Future Outlook
 
6. COMPANY PROFILES: OTHER ACTIVE PLAYERS
6.1. Chapter Overview
6.2. Accurus Biosciences
6.2.1. Company Overview
6.2.2. Platforms and Services Portfolio
6.2.3. Humanization Portfolio
 
6.3. IONTAS
6.3.1. Company Overview
6.3.2. Platforms and Services Portfolio
6.3.3. Affinity Maturation Portfolio
 
6.4. Lonza
6.4.1. Company Overview
6.4.2. Financial Information
6.4.3. Platforms and Services Portfolio
6.4.4. Humanization Portfolio
 
6.5. Oak BioSciences
6.5.1. Company Overview
6.5.2. Platforms and Services Portfolio
6.5.3. Humanization and Affinity Maturation Portfolio
 
6.6. Panorama Research
6.6.1. Company Overview
6.6.2. Platforms and Services Portfolio
6.6.3. Humanization Portfolio
 
6.7. PX’Therapeutics (Subsidiary of Aguettant)
6.7.1. Company Overview
6.7.2. Platforms and Services Portfolio
6.7.3. Humanization Portfolio
 
6.8. Yurogen Biosystems
6.8.1. Company Overview
6.8.2. Platforms and Services Portfolio
6.8.3. Humanization and Affinity Maturation Portfolio
 
7. BENCHMARK ANALYSIS
7.1. Chapter Overview
7.2. Benchmark Analysis: Methodology
7.3. Benchmark Analysis: Peer Groups
7.3.1. Benchmark Analysis: North America, Peer Group I
7.3.2. Benchmark Analysis: North America, Peer Group II
7.3.3. Benchmark Analysis: North America, Peer Group III
7.3.4. Benchmark Analysis: Europe, Peer Group IV
7.3.5. Benchmark Analysis: Europe, Peer Group V
7.3.6. Benchmark Analysis: Europe, Peer Group VI
7.3.7. Benchmark Analysis: Asia Pacific, Peer Group VII
7.3.8. Benchmark Analysis: Asia Pacific, Peer Group VIII
 
8. PUBLICATION ANALYSIS
8.1. Chapter Overview
8.2. Antibody Humanization: Publications
8.2.1. Publication Analysis: Year-wise Trend
8.2.2. Publication Analysis: Key Journals
8.2.3. Publication Analysis: Distribution by Animal Models Used
8.2.4. Publication Analysis: Distribution by Method Used for Humanization
 
9. SWOT ANALYSIS
9.1. Chapter Overview
9.2. Strengths
9.3. Weaknesses
9.4. Opportunities
9.5. Threats
 
10. MARKET FORECAST
10.1. Chapter Overview
10.2. Forecast Methodology
10.3. Antibody Humanization and Affinity Maturation Services Market, 2017-2030
10.4. Antibody Humanization and Affinity Maturation Services Market, 2017-2030: Distribution by Number of Projects
10.5. Antibody Humanization and Affinity Maturation Services Market, 2017-2030: Distribution by Location of Services Providers
10.6. Antibody Humanization and Affinity Maturation Services Market, 2017-2030: Geographical Distribution by Demand
10.7. Antibody Humanization and Affinity Maturation Services Market, 2017-2030: Balance of Trade Analysis
 
11. GUIDE TO OUTSOURCING
11.1. Chapter Overview
11.2. Out- sourcing: The Growing Need
11.3. Out- sourcing: Matrix of Services
11.4. Out- sourcing: The Decision Making Criteria
11.4.1. Cost vs Peripheral Activity Model
11.4.1.1. Case Study I
11.4.2. Transaction Cost Economics Model
11.4.2.1. Case Study II
11.4.3. Cost Assessment Model
11.4.3.1. Case Study III
11.4.4. Out-Sourcing: Decision Tree
11.4.5. Out-Sourcing: Key Parameters for Choosing a Service Provider
 
12. CONCLUSION
12.1. Owing to the Growing Demand for Monoclonal Antibodies, Antibody Discovery Services Providers Have Garnered Significant Interest from Drug Developers
12.2. Despite the Availability of Fully Human Antibody Generating Platforms, the Opportunity for Antibody Humanization Services Providers Remains Largely Unaffected
12.3. CDR-Grafting is the Most Prominent Method for Antibody Humanization; Services Providers are Regularly Improving to Further Enhance the Technique
12.4. North America Spearheads the Market with the Largest Number of Antibody Humanization and Affinity Maturation Services Providers
12.5. Advances in Manufacturing Tools, Availability of Robust Technical Data, and Novel Business Models Indicate Potential Future Growth Opportunities
12.6. Given the Growing Demand for Antibody-based Products, the Contract Services Market is Anticipated to Witness Steady Growth in the Coming Decade
12.7. Concluding Remarks
 
13. INTERVIEW TRANSCRIPTS
13.1. Aaron Sato, Chief Scientific Officer, LakePharma
13.2. Andrew C.R. Martin, Reader in Bioinformatics and Computational Biology, University College London
13.3. Thomas Schirrmann, General Manager, YUMAB
 
14. APPENDIX 1: TABULATED DATA
 
15. APPENDIX 2: LIST OF COMPANIES AND ORGANIZATIONS

List of Figures

Figure 3.1  Historical Timeline of Antibody Development
Figure 3.2  Basic Structure of an Antibody
Figure 3.3  Mechanism of Action of Antibodies
Figure 3.4  Monoclonal Antibodies: Nomenclature
Figure 3.5  Monoclonal Antibodies: Key Facts
Figure 3.6  Antibody Humanization: An Approach to Reduce Immunogenicity
Figure 3.7  Chimerization: Graphical Representation
Figure 3.8  CDR Grafting: Graphical Representation
Figure 3.9  Antibody Generation using Transgenic Animals
Figure 3.10  Approved Monoclonal Antibodies: Development Trend Analysis
Figure 3.11  Affinity Maturation: Display Technologies
Figure 3.12  Monoclonal Antibodies Key Enablers: Timeline
Figure 3.13  Monoclonal Antibodies in Clinical Trials: Distribution by Type
Figure 4.1  Antibody Humanization and Affinity Maturation Services and Platforms Providers: Distribution by Specialization
Figure 4.2  Antibody Humanization and Affinity Maturation Services and Platforms Providers: Distribution by Type of Offering
Figure 4.3  Antibody Humanization and Affinity Maturation Services and Platforms Providers: Distribution by Year of Establishment and Specialization
Figure 4.4  Antibody Humanization and Affinity Maturation Platform and Service Providers: Distribution by Method for Humanization
Figure 4.5  Antibody Humanization and Affinity Maturation Platform and Service Providers: Distribution by Method for Affinity Maturation
Figure 4.6  Antibody Humanization and Affinity Maturation Services and Platforms Providers: Distribution by Drug Discovery Expertise
Figure 4.7  Antibody Humanization and Affinity Maturation Services and Platforms Providers: Distribution by Geographical Location
Figure 4.8  Antibody Humanization and Affinity Maturation Services and Platforms Providers: Distribution by Geographical Location and Expertise
Figure 4.9  Antibody Humanization and Affinity Maturation Services and Platforms Providers: Distribution by Geographical Location (North America)
Figure 4.10  Antibody Humanization and Affinity Maturation Services and Platforms Providers: Distribution by Source Animal 
Figure 4.11 Antibody Humanization and Affinity Maturation Services and Platforms Providers: Distribution by Business Model
Figure 5.1  Abzena: Operating Segments
Figure 5.2  Abzena: Annual Revenues, 2014-H1 2017 (EUR Million)
Figure 5.3  Abzena: Affinity Maturation Methodology
Figure 5.4  Fusion Antibodies: Services Portfolio
Figure 5.5  Fusion Antibodies: CDRx Platform Methodology
Figure 5.6  Fusion Antibodies: Antibody Humanization Service Packages
Figure 5.7  GenScript: Key Highlights
Figure 5.8  GenScript: Annual Revenues, 2012-2016 (USD Million)
Figure 5.9  GenScript: Revenues by Business Divisions, 2016 (USD Million)
Figure 5.10  GenScript: Humanization Methodology
Figure 5.11  HuTARG Platform: Advantages
Figure 5.12  Innovative Targeting Solutions: Affinity Maturation Methodology
Figure 5.13  LakePharma: Service Portfolio
Figure 5.14  LakePharma: Antibody Engineering Services
Figure 5.15  LakePharma: Antibody Humanization Methodology
Figure 5.16  LakePharma: Affinity Maturation Methodology
Figure 5.17  XOMA: Antibody Platforms
Figure 5.18  XOMA: Annual Revenues, 2011-2016 (USD Million)
Figure 5.19  HE™ Platform: Advantages
Figure 5.20  TAE™ Platform: Advantages
Figure 6.1  Accurus Biosciences: Service Portfolio
Figure 6.2  Accurus Biosciences: Humanization Services Methodology
Figure 6.3  IONTAS: Services Portfolio
Figure 6.4  IONTAS: Technology Platforms
Figure 6.5  Lonza: Annual Revenues, 2012-2016 (CHF Billion)
Figure 6.6  Lonza: Development and Manufacturing Services Portfolio
Figure 6.7  Lonza: Humanization Services Methodology
Figure 6.8  Oak BioSciences: Services Portfolio
Figure 6.9  Oak BioSciences: Humanization Service Methodology
Figure 6.10  Panorama Research: Services Portfolio
Figure 6.11  PX’Therapeutics: Services Portfolio
Figure 6.12  PX’Therapeutics: Humanization Service Methodology
Figure 6.13  Yurogen Biosystems: Service Segment Overview
Figure 6.14  Yurogen Biosystems: Humanization Service Methodology
Figure 7.1  Benchmark Analysis: Distribution by Year of Establishment
Figure 7.2  Benchmark Analysis: North America, Peer Group I
Figure 7.3  Benchmark Analysis: North America, Peer Group II
Figure 7.4  Benchmark Analysis: North America, Peer Group III
Figure 7.5  Benchmark Analysis: Europe, Peer Group IV
Figure 7.6  Benchmark Analysis: Europe, Peer Group V
Figure 7.7  Benchmark Analysis: Europe, Peer Group VI
Figure 7.8  Benchmark Analysis: Asia Pacific, Peer Group VII
Figure 7.9  Benchmark Analysis: Asia Pacific, Peer Group VIII
Figure 8.1  Publication Analysis: Quarterly Distribution of Published Articles
Figure 8.2  Publication Analysis: Distribution by Key Journals
Figure 8.3  Publication Analysis: Distribution by Study Model
Figure 8.4  Publication Analysis: Distribution by Method used for Humanization
Figure 9.1  Antibody Humanization Services and Platforms Providers: SWOT Analysis
Figure 9.2  Antibody Humanization Services and Platforms Providers: Overview of Strengths
Figure 9.3  Antibody Humanization Services and Platforms Providers: Overview of Weaknesses
Figure 9.4  Antibody Humanization Platform and Service Providers: Overview of Opportunities
Figure 9.5  Antibody Humanization Services and Platforms Providers: Overview of Threats
Figure 10.1  Antibody Humanization and Affinity Maturation Services Market, 2017-2030: Base Scenario (USD Million)
Figure 10.2  Antibody Humanization and Affinity Maturation Services Market, 2017-2030: Distribution by Number of Humanization Projects, Base Scenario
Figure 10.3  Antibody Humanization and Affinity Maturation Services Market, 2017-2030: Distribution by Number of Affinity Maturation Projects, Base Scenario
Figure 10.4  Antibody Humanization Market, 2017: Distribution by Location of Services Providers
Figure 10.5  Antibody Affinity Maturation Market, 2017: Distribution by Location of Service Providers
Figure 10.6  Antibody Humanization and Affinity Maturation Market, 2017, 2030: Distribution by Demand
Figure 10.7  Antibody Humanization Services Market, 2017: Balance of Trade Analysis
Figure 10.8  Antibody Affinity Maturation Services Market, 2017: Balance of Trade Analysis
Figure 11.1  R&D Efficiency of Companies: Expenditure vs Drug Approval
Figure 11.2  Contract Research Organizations: Types of Services
Figure 11.3  Out-sourcing Decision: Transaction Cost Analysis Model
Figure 11.4  Out-sourcing Decision: Cost Assessment Model
Figure 12.1  Antibody Humanization Market, 2017: Balance of Trade Analysis
Figure 12.2  Antibody Humanization and Affinity Maturation Services Market: Conservative, Base and Optimistic Scenarios, 2017-2030 (USD Million)

List of Tables

Table 3.1  Mechanism of Action of Therapeutic Antibodies against Different Target Classes
Table 3.2  Differences between Polyclonal and Monoclonal Antibodies
Table 3.3  List of Approved Monoclonal Antibodies
Table 3.4  Approved Monoclonal Antibodies: Affinity Overview
Table 4.1  Antibody Humanization and Affinity Maturation: Services and Platforms Providers
Table 4.2  Antibody Humanization and Affinity Maturation: Description of Services and Platforms Providers
Table 5.1  Abzena: Humanization Services Overview
Table 5.2  Abzena: Humanized Antibodies in Clinical Development
Table 5.3  GenScript: Humanization Service Details
Table 5.4  Innovative Targeting Solutions: Drugs in Development
Table 5.5  LakePharma: Antibody Humanization Services
Table 5.6  LakePharma: Affinity Maturation Services
Table 5.7  XOMA: Development Pipeline
Table 6.1  Oak BioSciences: Affinity Maturation Services
Table 6.2  Panorama Research: Humanization Services
Table 6.3  Yurogen Biosystems: Humanization Service Details
Table 6.4  Yurogen Biosystems: Affinity Maturation Service Details
Table 7.1  Benchmark Analysis: Peer Groups
Table 8.1  Antibody Humanization: Publications
Table 8.2  Antibody Humanization: Modified CDR Grafting Methods
Table 11.1  Out-sourcing Decision: Type of Activity
Table 11.2  Out-sourcing Decision: Case Study I
Table 14.1  Approved Monoclonal Antibodies: Development Trend Analysis
Table 14.2  Monoclonal Antibodies in Clinical Trials: Distribution by Type
Table 14.3  Antibody Humanization and Affinity Maturation Services and Platforms Providers: Distribution by Specialization
Table 14.4  Antibody Humanization and Affinity Maturation Services and Platforms Providers: Distribution by Type of Offering
Table 14.5  Antibody Humanization and Affinity Maturation Services and Platforms Providers: Distribution by Year of Establishment and Specialization
Table 14.6  Antibody Humanization and Affinity Maturation Platform and Service Providers: Distribution by Method for Humanization
Table 14.7  Antibody Humanization and Affinity Maturation Platform and Service Providers: Distribution by Method for Affinity Maturation
Table 14.8  Antibody Humanization and Affinity Maturation Services and Platforms Providers: Distribution by Drug Discovery Expertise
Table 14.9  Antibody Humanization and Affinity Maturation Services and Platforms Providers: Distribution by Geographical Location
Table 14.10  Antibody Humanization and Affinity Maturation Services and Platforms Providers: Distribution by Geographical Location and Expertise
Table 14.11  Antibody Humanization and Affinity Maturation Services and Platforms Providers: Distribution by Geographical Location (North America)
Table 14.12  Antibody Humanization and Affinity Maturation Services and Platforms Providers: Distribution by Source Animal
Table 14.13  Antibody Humanization and Affinity Maturation Services and Platforms Providers: Distribution by Business Model
Table 14.14  Abzena: Annual Revenues, 2014-H1 2017 (EUR Million)
Table 14.15  GenScript: Annual Revenues, 2012-2016 (USD Million)
Table 14.16  GenScript: Revenues by Business Divisions, 2016 (USD Million)
Table 14.17  XOMA: Annual Revenues, 2011-2016 (USD Million)
Table 14.18  Lonza: Annual Revenues, 2012-2016 (CHF Billion)
Table 14.19  Benchmark Analysis: Distribution by Year of Establishment
Table 14.20  Publication Analysis: Quarterly Distribution of Published Articles
Table 14.21  Publication Analysis: Distribution by Key Journals
Table 14.22  Publication Analysis: Distribution by Study Model
Table 14.23  Publication Analysis: Distribution by Method used for Humanization
Table 14.24  Antibody Humanization and Affinity Maturation Services Market, 2017-2030: Base Scenario (USD Million)
Table 14.25  Antibody Humanization and Affinity Maturation Services Market, 2017-2030: Optimistic Scenario (USD Million)
Table 14.26  Antibody Humanization and Affinity Maturation Services Market, 2017-2030: Conservative Scenario (USD Million)
Table 14.27  Antibody Humanization and Affinity Maturation Services Market, 2017-2030: Distribution by Number of Humanization Projects, Base Scenario
Table 14.28  Antibody Humanization and Affinity Maturation Services Market, 2017-2030: Distribution by Number of Humanization Projects, Optimistic Scenario
Table 14.29  Antibody Humanization and Affinity Maturation Services Market, 2017-2030: Distribution by Number of Humanization Projects, Conservative Scenario
Table 14.30  Antibody Humanization and Affinity Maturation Services Market, 2017-2030: Distribution by Number of Affinity Maturation Projects, Base Scenario
Table 14.31  Antibody Humanization and Affinity Maturation Services Market, 2017-2030: Distribution by Number of Affinity Maturation Projects, Optimistic Scenario
Table 14.32  Antibody Humanization and Affinity Maturation Services Market, 2017-2030: Distribution by Number of Affinity Maturation Projects, Conservative Scenario
Table 14.33  Antibody Humanization Market, 2017: Distribution by Location of Services Providers
Table 14.34  Antibody Affinity Maturation Market, 2017: Distribution by Location of Service Providers
Table 14.35  Antibody Humanization and Affinity Maturation Market, 2017, 2030: Distribution by Demand
Table 14.36  Antibody Humanization Services Market, 2017: Balance of Trade Analysis
Table 14.37  Antibody Affinity Maturation Services Market, 2017: Balance of Trade Analysis
Table 14.38  R&D Efficiency of Companies: Expenditure vs Drug Approval
Table 14.39  Antibody Humanization Market, 2017: Balance of Trade Analysis
Table 14.40  Antibody Humanization and Affinity Maturation Services Market: Conservative, Base and Optimistic Scenarios, 2017-2030 (USD Million)

Listed Companies

The following companies and organizations have been covered in this report.

  1. Ab Studio
  2. A&G Pharmaceutical
  3. Abbott
  4. AbbVie
  5. Abcam
  6. AbCheck
  7. Absolute Antibody
  8. Abwiz Bio
  9. Abzena
  10. Abzyme Therapeutics
  11. Accurus Biosciences
  12. ACROBiosystems
  13. Affimed
  14. AIMM Therapeutics
  15. Akeso Biopharma
  16. Alder BioPharmaceuticals
  17. Alexion Pharmaceuticals
  18. Amgen
  19. AnaptysBio
  20. Apexigen
  21. Aragen Bioscience
  22. Aristi Biotech
  23. AstraZeneca
  24. ATUM
  25. AvantGen
  26. AxioMx
  27. Biogen
  28. Bio-Rad
  29. BIOTEM
  30. Boehringer Ingelheim
  31. Bristol-Myers Squibb
  32. CAPRA Science Antibodies
  33. CARsgen Therapeutics
  34. Chugai Pharmaceuticals
  35. CisbioCorixa
  36. Creative Biolabs
  37. Cytogen
  38. DaTaMabs
  39. Distributed bio
  40. Elan Pharma
  41. Eli Lilly
  42. Elusys Therapeutics
  43. ExonBIO
  44. Fresenius
  45. Fusion Antibodies
  46. G&P Biosciences
  47. GeneBeyond
  48. Genentech
  49. Genmab
  50. GenScript
  51. Genzyme
  52. GlaxoSmithKline
  53. GlycoNex
  54. Henlix Biotech
  55. Human Genome Sciences
  56. iDD biotech
  57. ImClone Systems
  58. Immune Biosolutions
  59. Immunomedics
  60. ImmunoPrecise Antibodies
  61. Innate Pharma
  62. Innovative Targeting Solutions
  63. Integral Molecular
  64. IONTAS
  65. Janssen Biotech
  66. Johnson & Johnson
  67. LakePharma
  68. Lonza
  69. MabPlex
  70. MabSpace Biosciences
  71. Macromoltek
  72. MedImmune
  73. Merck
  74. MIGS
  75. Millennium Pharmaceuticals
  76. Mi-mAbs
  77. ModiQuest Research
  78. Morphotek
  79. MRC Technology (LifeArc)
  80. NeoRx
  81. Noble Life Sciences
  82. Novartis
  83. Oak Biosciences
  84. Organon Teknika
  85. Palatin Technologies
  86. Panorama Research
  87. Pharmaron
  88. Precision Antibody
  89. ProteoGenix
  90. PX'Therapeutics
  91. QoolAbs
  92. Regeneron Pharmaceuticals
  93. Roche
  94. Rx Biosciences
  95. Sanofi
  96. Seattle Genetics
  97. Sino Biological
  98. Specifica
  99. STC Biologics
  100. Syd Labs
  101. Takeda Pharmaceutical
  102. Teva Pharmaceutical
  103. Union Chimique Belge
  104. United Therapeutics
  105. University of Virginia School of Medicine
  106. Valeant Pharmaceuticals
  107. Viva Biotech
  108. Viventia Bio
  109. Vrisko
  110. WuXi Biologics
  111. Wyeth
  112. XOMA
  113. YUMAB
  114. Yurogen Biosystems
  115. Zymeworks
     

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