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Back of the Eye Disorders: Novel Drugs and Delivery Technologies, 2017-2030

Published: Jan 04, 2018
Pages: 292
Product Code: RA10097
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According to the World Health Organization, close to 250 million individuals, including 36 million blind people, presently suffer from some form of vision impairment. Further, a recent study published in September 2017 estimates that the number of blind people is likely to increase to 38.5 million, by 2020, and to 115 million, by 2050.  Current projections also indicate that, in the US alone, the total economic burden related to vision loss is expected to reach approximately USD 715 billion by 2050.  In fact, chronic eye diseases are considered to be one of the main causes of vision loss globally, and an estimated 90% cases of visual impairment are reported to be caused due to such conditions. It is worth highlighting that a significant portion of these chronic ophthalmological disorders are clinical conditions related to the back of the eye.

 

The current treatment landscape for back of the eye disorders is characterized by the presence of blockbuster drugs, such as Lucentis® and Eylea®, and various other therapeutic options. Despite the success of these therapies, their invasive mode of administration, high dosage frequency and other drug related side effects, are some of the drawbacks that have an adverse impact on their therapeutic potential and adoption. Further, there are no treatment approaches available for a number of ophthalmological indications, such as dry age related macular degeneration (dry AMD), retinitis pigmentosa (RP) and leber congenital amaurosis. In order to overcome these challenges, various stakeholders are engaged in the development of novel therapeutic approaches. With the entry of several start-ups that are driving the innovation in this domain, the pipeline has several novel product candidates in various stages of development. Companies are steadily collaborating to develop and commercialize their products globally, in-license intellectual property to design new treatment modalities and advance research initiatives in this domain.

 

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The ‘Back of the Eye Disorders: Novel Drugs and Delivery Technologies, 2017-2030’ report features an extensive study of the market for novel drugs, drug-device combinations and technologies for the treatment of back of the eye disorders. The focus of this study is on the applications and the likely evolution of novel treatment options (excluding steroids and corticosteroids) in the mid to long term. The evolving market has its hopes pinned on the efforts of multiple start-ups, small and large-sized companies. Amongst other elements, the report features:

  • A detailed assessment of the current market landscape of novel drugs, providing information on various drug / therapy developers, phase of development (clinical, preclinical or discovery stage) of product candidates, information on drug class, molecular target, type of therapy, mechanism of action, route of administration, and key therapeutic indication(s). In addition, we have provided a list of drug device combinations that target the back of the eye.
  • A world map representation, depicting the most active geographies in terms of the presence of companies developing drugs to treat back of the eye disorders.
  • A bull’s eye analysis highlighting distribution of pipeline candidates in terms of phase of development, type of target and drug class. A grid analysis based on type of drug class developed / being developed across different indications and stages of development.
  • An elaborate discussion on lifecycle management strategies, depicting how companies are using various methods to expand patent exclusivity in order to exploit the revenue generation potential of their proprietary products.
  • Comprehensive profiles of clinical stage (phase II/III and above) drug candidates specifically targeting back of the eye disorders, highlighting their current status of development, mechanism of action, technology, patent portfolio, clinical trial information and recent developments.
  • A review of currently available technologies and delivery systems that are being used to administer therapeutics to the back of the eye, featuring brief profiles of the various technical advances, key benefits offered and information on the product candidates pipeline that are based on these technologies.
  • A discussion on various visual prosthesis that are available, highlighting their mechanism of action. In addition, we have provided a comparative 2X2 analysis of the different types visual prosthesis based on supplier power and product competitiveness.
  • An analysis of the partnerships that have been established in the recent past, covering R&D collaborations, license agreements, mergers and acquisitions, manufacturing and services agreements, and other relevant agreements.
  • A discussion on the key promotional strategies that have been adopted for marketing approved drugs, namely (based on the approval year) Macugen®, Lucentis®, Eylea® and Jetrea®, that are presently prescribed to treat back of the eye disorders.

 

One of the key objectives of the report was to understand the primary growth drivers and estimate the future size of the market. Based on various parameters, such as target patient population, likely adoption rates and expected pricing, we have provided an informed estimate on the likely evolution of the market in the short to mid-term and long term, for the period 2017-2030. To account for the uncertainties associated with the development of novel drugs and to add robustness to our model, we have provided three forecast scenarios, portraying the conservative, base and optimistic tracks of the market’s evolution.

 

The opinions and insights presented in the report were also influenced by discussions held with senior stakeholders in the industry. These include Elise Brownell (Senior Vice President of Operations and Project Management, Amarantus Bioscience), Quinton Oswald (President and CEO, Neurotech Pharmaceuticals) and Samantha Cobb (CEO, AdAlta). All actual figures have been sourced and analyzed from publicly available information forums and primary research discussions. Financial figures mentioned in this report are in USD, unless otherwise specified.

 

Example Highlights

  1. Over 170 product candidates are currently under various stages of development for a diverse range of back of the eye disorders. Seven drugs are commercially available; of these, Lucentis® and Eylea® have already achieved blockbuster status. Nearly 40% of the pipeline molecules are under clinical development; specifically, 2 product candidates are in the pre-registration stage, 8 molecules are being investigated in phase III and phase II/III, 24 molecules in phase II, 27 molecules in phase I/II and 11 molecules in phase I clinical trials. Majority (56%) of the product candidates are still in the preclinical and discovery stages.
  2. Gene therapy has emerged as one of the key drug classes being investigated across various phases of development. One such therapy candidate, LUXTURNA™, which is being developed for the treatment of inherited RPE65 dystrophies, is expected to receive approval in 2018. Other important drug classes in this domain include small molecules (20%), antibody based therapeutics (12%), cell therapies (8%) and peptides / proteins (8%).
  3. 41% of the products in the pipeline are designed to treat age-related macular degeneration. Nearly 20% of the molecules are being developed for the treatment of diabetes associated eye disorders, such as diabetic macular edema and diabetic retinopathy. In addition, close to 14% of the molecules are under development for the treatment of retinitis pigmentosa, followed by Leber Hereditary Optic Neuropathy (5%) and Stargardt disease (3%). The remaining 17% of the pipeline molecules are being developed for treating posterior uveitis, Usher syndrome and other retinal dystrophies.
  4. Majority of product candidates (29%) in the clinical pipeline target various components of the anti-angiogenesis pathway. Most of the approved drugs (57%) also follow this particular mechanism of action. A significant number of molecules (18%) are being developed against various isoforms of VEGF; these molecules are designed to either target VEGF alone or in combination with other molecular targets.
  5. The market landscape is characterized by the presence of large-sized (20), mid-sized (21) and small-sized companies (69). Some of the prominent large-sized companies engaged in this domain include (in alphabetical order) AbbVie, Chengdu Kang Hong Pharmaceuticals, Genentech, Novartis, Pfizer, Regeneron Pharmaceuticals and Valeant Pharmaceuticals. Similarly, mid-sized companies that are actively contributing to the development of back of the eye disorders include (in alphabetical order) Acucela, Mitotech, Molecular Partners, Novelion Therapeutics, Quark Pharmaceuticals, Stealth Biotherapeutics and ThromboGenics. In addition, small companies, such as (in alphabetical order) Amyndas Pharmaceuticals, ElsaLys Biotech, Envisia Therapeutics, Exonate, GenSight Biologics, Ichor Therapeutics, InFlectis BioScience, Nightstar Therapeutics, Ocugen, Recursion Pharmaceuticals, SanBio and Vision Medicines are also actively involved in this domain.
  6. To overcome the challenges related to the effective delivery of drugs to the back of the eye, several innovative technologies are also being developed. Notable examples of advanced drug delivery technologies include (in alphabetical order) BioSeizer (Taiwan Liposome Company), Durasert™ (pSivida), Encapsulated Cell Therapy (Neurotech), EyeCET Platform Technology (Eyevensys), EyeGate II® Delivery System (EyeGate Pharma), Ocular Drug Delivery System (GrayBug Vision), Oculis Platform Technology (Oculis), Replenish Posterior MicroPump™ (Replenish), SCS™ Microinjector (Clearside Biomedical), and Verisome Technology (Icon Bioscience).
  7. Given the increase in technological advancements, rise in the aging population across the globe and the unmet across multiple ophthalmological disorders, we anticipate the opportunity to steadily grow in the foreseen future. In fact, specific products, being developed for indications with very large target patient populations, are anticipated to achieve blockbuster status (sales over USD 1 billion) and become prime contributors to future revenues.

 

 

Research Methodology

The data presented in this report has been gathered via secondary and primary research. For all our projects, we conduct interviews with experts in the area (academia, industry, medical practice and other associations) to solicit their opinions on emerging trends in the market. This is primarily useful for us to draw out our own opinion on how the market will evolve across different regions and technology segments. Where possible, the available data has been checked for accuracy from multiple sources of information.

 

The secondary sources of information include

  • Annual reports
  • Investor presentations
  • SEC filings
  • Industry databases
  • News releases from company websites
  • Government policy documents
  • Industry analysts’ views

 

While the focus has been on forecasting the market over the coming 13 years, the report also provides our independent view on various technological and non-commercial trends emerging in the industry. This opinion is solely based on our knowledge, research and understanding of the relevant market gathered from various secondary and primary sources of information.

 

 

Chapter Outlines

Chapter 2 is an executive summary of the insights captured in our research. The summary offers a high-level view on the likely evolution of the back of the eye disorders market in the short-mid and long term.

 

Chapter 3 features a discussion on the general concepts related to the structure of the human eye, primarily focusing on the various disorders associated with the back of the eye. It provides information on the static, dynamic and metabolic barriers that have a significant impact on drug delivery to the back of the eye. The chapter also features a discussion on the different routes used to administer drugs into the eye. In addition, it covers details on the available treatment options (drug classes that have been approved or are currently under development) and drug delivery approaches for back of the eye disorders.

 

Chapter 4 includes information on over 175 therapeutics that are currently approved or are in different stages of development. It features a comprehensive analysis of the pipeline molecules, highlighting the drug developer, target indication, phase of development, drug class, type of therapy, mechanism of action and route of administration. In addition, it features a schematic representation on a world map, highlighting the key regional hubs developing therapeutics for the treatment of back of the eye disorders. Further, we have provided a logo landscape of product developers in North America, Europe and the Asia Pacific region on the basis of employee base. The chapter also features a comprehensive grid analysis of the various therapeutic product candidates, highlighting their respective target indications, drug class and phases of development.

 

Chapter 5 includes a detailed discussion on product life cycle management strategies that are being considered by developers of approved drugs. It focuses on the development and commercialization related strategies, which are being used extensively by drug developers to treat back of the eye disorders.

 

Chapter 6 contains detailed profiles of drugs that are in advanced stages of clinical development (phase II/III and above). Each profile provides information on the current status of development, mechanism of action, technology, patent portfolio, clinical trial information and recent developments.

 

Chapter 7 presents a comprehensive market forecast, highlighting the future potential of the market till 2030. Based on various parameters, such as target patient population, likely pricing and adoption (driven by clinical efficacy and safety data), we have estimated the evolution of the market over the coming 10-15 years. The chapter provides detailed segmentation of overall opportunity based on drug classes (antibody based therapeutics, fusion proteins, peptides, small molecules, oligonucleotides and others), indications (wet AMD, dry AMD, DME, DR, LHON, Stargardt disease and others), mechanism of action (anti-angiogenesis, anti-inflammatory, complement pathway inhibition, functional protein production, visual cycle modulation and others) and route of administration (intravitreal, topical, oral, subcutaneous and others).                                                                                                                                       

 

Chapter 8 provides details on the technology platforms and drug delivery systems that have been developed to address the challenges posed by the current treatment approaches in this space. It includes brief profiles of those drug delivery technologies / platforms that are being developed for multiple drug candidates in the clinical stage. Each profile provides information on the developer, key advantages, release profile, type of molecule and technology pipeline. In addition, the chapter highlights the various ocular implants / drug device combinations that are either approved or being developed to target back of the eye disorders.

 

Chapter 9 highlights the bionic vision technology / visual prostheses, which are designed to restore vision in visually impaired patients. It includes information on the various bionic eye technologies that are either approved or currently in various stages of development for the treatment of back of the eye disorders, specifically RP and wet AMD. It also presents a comparative 2 X 2 matrix analysis of bionic vision technologies, based on parameters, such as phase of development, site of implantation, targeted indications and unique characteristics of these technologies.

 

Chapter 10 features an elaborate discussion and analysis of the various collaborations and partnerships that have been inked amongst players in this market. We have also discussed the different partnership models (including product development and commercialization, R&D agreements, technology / product licensing agreements, other licensing agreements, mergers / acquisitions and clinical trial collaborations) and the most common forms of deals / agreements that have been established between 2013 and 2017 (including both the years).

 

Chapter 11 highlights the key promotional strategies that are being implemented by the developers of marketed products, such as Macugen®, Lucentis®, Eylea® and Jetrea®. For the purpose of this analysis, we studied the promotional activities undertaken by the developers of the aforementioned drugs. The promotional aspects covered in the chapter include details provided on the product website (covering key messages for patients and healthcare professionals), patient support offerings and informative downloadable content.

 

Chapter 12 provides a detailed analysis, capturing the key parameters and trends that are likely to influence the future of the back of the eye disorders market within the biopharmaceutical industry, under a comprehensive SWOT framework.

 

Chapter 13 summarizes the overall report. In this chapter, we have provided a list of key takeaways from the report, and expressed our independent opinion related to the research and analysis described in the previous chapters.

 

Chapter 14 is a collection of interview transcripts of the discussions that were held with key stakeholders in this market. The chapter provides details of interviews held with Elise Brownell (Senior Vice President of Operations and Project Management, Amarantus Bioscience), Quinton Oswald (President and CEO, Neurotech Pharmaceuticals) and Samantha Cobb (CEO, AdAlta).

 

Chapter 15 is an appendix, which provides information on drugs that have been discontinued over time.

 

Chapter 16 is an appendix, which provides tabulated data and numbers for all the figures provided in the report.

 

Chapter 17 is an appendix, which provides the list of companies and organizations mentioned in the report.

 
1. PREFACE
1.1. Scope of the Report
1.2. Research Methodology
1.3. Chapter Outlines
 
2. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
 
3. INTRODUCTION
3.1. Background and Context
3.2. Structure of the Eye
3.3. Components of Back of the Eye
3.3.1. Retina
3.3.2. Vitreous Humor
3.3.3. Optic Nerve
3.4. The Visual Cycle
3.5. Barriers to the Back of the Eye
3.5.1. Static Barriers
3.5.2. Dynamic Barriers
3.5.3. Metabolic Barriers
3.6. Route of Administration of Drugs to Back of the Eye
3.7. Disorders Associated with Back of the Eye
 
3.8. Treatment Options for Back of the Eye Disorders
3.8.1. Laser Treatment
3.8.2. Vitrectomy / Vitreous Surgery
3.8.3. Drugs
3.8.3.1. Angiogenesis Inhibitors
3.8.3.2. Complement Factor Inhibitors
3.8.3.3. Visual Cycle Modulators
3.8.3.4. Anti-Inflammatory Drugs
3.8.3.5. Gene Therapies
3.8.3.6. Stem Cell Therapies
3.9. Drug Delivery Platforms for Back of the Eye Disorders
3.9.1. Implantable Devices
3.9.2. Intravitreal Injections
3.9.3. Depot Injections
3.9.4. Transscleral Iontophoresis
3.9.5. Nanotechnology
3.9.6. Encapsulated Cell Technology
 
4. COMPETITIVE LANDSCAPE
4.1. Chapter Overview
4.2. Back of the Eye Disorders: Clinical Pipeline
4.2.1. Analysis by Phase of Development
4.2.2. Analysis by Drug Class
4.2.3. Analysis by Mechanism of Action
4.2.4. Analysis by Type of Molecular Target
4.2.5. Analysis by Target Indication
4.2.6. Analysis by Type of Therapy
4.2.7. Analysis by Route of Administration
 
4.3. Back of the Eye Disorders: Preclinical / Discovery Pipeline
4.3.1. Analysis by Drug Class
4.3.2. Analysis by Target Indication
 
4.4. Back of the Eye Disorders Pipeline: Leading Players
4.5. Back of the Eye Disorders Pipeline: Most Prominent Hubs
4.6. Back of the Eye Disorders Pipeline: Regional Landscape
4.7. Back of the Eye Disorders Pipeline: Grid Analysis
 
5. MARKETED PIPELINE: PRODUCT LIFE CYCLE MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES
5.1. Introduction
5.2. Macugen®
5.2.1. Overview
5.2.2. Mechanism of Action
5.2.3. Life Cycle Management Strategy
5.2.3.1. Geographic Expansion
5.2.3.2. Development of New Formulation
5.2.4. Collaborations
 
5.3. Lucentis®
5.3.1. Overview
5.3.2. Mechanism of Action
5.3.3. Life Cycle Management Strategy 
5.3.3.1. Indication and Geographic Expansion
5.3.3.2. Strategic Pricing
5.3.3.3. Development of New Formulation
5.3.3.4. Development of Combination Therapies
5.3.4. Collaborations
 
5.4. Eylea®
5.4.1. Overview
5.4.2. Mechanism of Action
5.4.3. Life Cycle Management Strategy
5.4.3.1. Indication and Geographic Expansion
5.4.3.2. Therapeutic Area Expansion
5.4.3.3. Development of an Intravitreal Depot
5.4.3.4. Strategic Pricing and Reimbursement
5.4.3.5. Development of Combination Therapies
5.4.4. Collaborations
 
5.5. Jetrea®
5.5.1. Overview
5.5.2. Mechanism of Action
5.5.3. Life Cycle Management Strategy
5.5.3.1. Indication and Geographic Expansion
5.5.3.2. Development of New Formulation
5.5.3.3. Reimbursement Strategies
5.5.4. Collaborations
 
5.6. Conbercept
5.6.1. Overview
5.6.2. Mechanism of Action
5.6.3. Life Cycle Management Strategy
5.6.3.1. Indication Expansion
 
6. LATE STAGE CLINICAL PIPELINE: DRUG PROFILES
6.1. Chapter Overview
6.2. LUXTURNA™ (Spark Therapeutics): Mechanism of Action, Indication, Route of Administration, Molecular Target, Key Developments and Clinical Results
6.3. Sirolimus (Santen Pharmaceutical): Mechanism of Action, Indication, Route of Administration, Molecular Target, Key Developments and Clinical Results
6.4. Abicipar Pegol (Molecular Partners / Allergan): Mechanism of Action, Indication, Route of Administration, Molecular Target, Key Developments and Clinical Results
6.5. Brolucizumab (Alcon, a Division of Novartis): Mechanism of Action, Indication, Route of Administration, Molecular Target, Key Developments and Clinical Results
6.6. GS010 (GenSight Biologics): Mechanism of Action, Indication, Route of Administration, Molecular Target, Key Developments and Clinical Results
6.7. Lampalizumab (Roche): Mechanism of Action, Indication, Route of Administration, Molecular Target, Key Developments and Clinical Results
6.8. Optina (Ampio Pharmaceuticals): Mechanism of Action, Indication, Route of Administration, Molecular Target, Key Developments and Clinical Results
6.9. Squalamine (OHR Pharmaceutical): Mechanism of Action, Indication, Route of Administration, Molecular Target, Key Developments and Clinical Results
6.10. Zuretinol (Novelion Therapeutics): Mechanism of Action, Indication, Route of Administration, Molecular Target, Key Developments and Clinical Results
6.11. Zimura (Ophthotech): Mechanism of Action, Indication, Route of Administration, Molecular Target, Key Developments and Clinical Results
 
7. MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY ANALYSIS
7.1. Chapter Overview
7.2. Forecast Methodology and Key Assumptions
7.3. Overall Back of the Eye Disorders Market, 2017-2030
7.4. Back of the Eye Disorders Market: Distribution by Indications
7.4.1. Back of the Eye Disorders Market for Wet Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD)
7.4.2. Back of the Eye Disorders Market for Dry AMD
7.4.3. Back of the Eye Disorders Market for Diabetic Macular Edema (DME)
7.4.4. Back of the Eye Disorders Market for Diabetic Retinopathy (DR)
7.4.5. Back of the Eye Disorders Market for Stargardt Disease
7.4.6. Back of the Eye Disorders Market for Leber Hereditary Optic Neuropathy (LHON)
7.4.7. Back of the Eye Disorders Market for Other Indications
7.5. Back of the Eye Disorders Market: Distribution by Drug Class
7.6. Back of the Eye Disorders Market: Distribution by Mechanism of Action
7.7. Back of the Eye Disorders Market: Distribution by Route of Administration
 
8. TECHNOLOGY PLATFORMS, DELIVERY SYSTEMS AND DRUG DEVICE COMBINATIONS
8.1. Chapter Overview
8.2. Drug Formulation Technologies
8.3. Drug Delivery Technologies / Systems 
8.3.1. Profiles of Key Drug Delivery Technologies / Systems
8.3.1.1. BioSeizer (Taiwan Liposome Company): Type of Technology, Key Features, Sustained Release (Duration), Type of Molecules and Technology Pipeline
8.3.1.2. Durasert™ (pSivida): Type of Technology, Key Features, Sustained Release (Duration), Type of Molecules and Technology Pipeline
8.3.1.3. Encapsulated Cell Therapy (Neurotech): Type of Technology, Key Features, Sustained Release (Duration), Type of Molecules and Technology Pipeline
8.3.1.4. EyeCET Platform Technology (Eyevensys): Type of Technology, Key Features, Sustained Release (Duration), Type of Molecules and Technology Pipeline
8.3.1.5. EyeGate II® Delivery System (EyeGate Pharma): Type of Technology, Key Features, Sustained Release (Duration), Type of Molecules and Technology Pipeline
8.3.1.6. Ocular Drug Delivery Technology (Graybug Vision): Type of Technology, Key Features, Sustained Release (Duration), Type of Molecules and Technology Pipeline
8.3.1.7. Oculis Platform Technology (Oculis): Type of Technology, Key Features, Sustained Release (Duration), Type of Molecules and Technology Pipeline
8.3.1.8. Replenish Posterior MicroPump™ (Replenish): Type of Technology, Key Features, Sustained Release (Duration), Type of Molecules and Technology Pipeline
8.3.1.9. SCS™ Microinjector (Clearside Biomedical): Type of Technology, Key Features, Sustained Release (Duration), Type of Molecules and Technology Pipeline
8.3.1.10. Verisome (Icon Bioscience): Type of Technology, Key Features, Sustained Release (Duration), Type of Molecules and Technology Pipeline
8.4. Drug Device Combinations / Implants
 
9. VISUAL PROSTHESIS
9.1. Chapter Overview
9.2. Visual Prosthesis / Bionic Eye
9.2.1. Architecture
9.2.2. Role in the Treatment of Retinal Disorders
9.2.3. Market Landscape
9.2.3.1. Product Competitiveness Analysis
 
10. PARTNERSHIPS AND COLLABORATIONS
10.1. Chapter Overview
10.2. Partnership Models
10.3. Back of the Eye Disorders: List of Partnerships
10.4. Back of the Eye Disorders: Partnerships Analysis
10.4.1. Analysis by Year of Partnership
10.4.2. Analysis by Type of Partnership Model
10.4.3. Most Active Players by Number of Partnerships
 
11. PROMOTIONAL ANALYSIS
11.1. Chapter Overview
11.2. Channels Used for Promotional Campaigns
11.3. Summary: Product Website Analysis
11.3.1. Summary: Patient Support Services and Informative Downloads
 
11.4. Promotional Analysis: Macugen®
11.4.1. Drug Overview
11.4.2. Product Website Analysis
11.4.2.1. Patient Assistance Program
11.4.2.2. Distributor Information and Informative Downloads
 
11.5. Promotional Analysis: Lucentis®
11.5.1. Drug Overview
11.5.2. Product Website Analysis
11.5.2.1. Messages for Healthcare Professionals
11.5.2.2. Patient Support Services and Informative Downloads
11.5.2.3. Messages for Patients and Caregivers
11.5.2.4. Other Promotional Activities
 
11.6. Promotional Analysis: Eylea®
11.6.1. Drug Overview
11.6.2. Product Website Analysis
11.6.2.1. Messages for Healthcare Professionals
11.6.2.2. Patient Support Services and Informative Downloads
11.6.2.3. Messages for Patients and Caregivers
 
11.7. Promotional Analysis: Jetrea®
11.7.1. Drug Overview
11.7.2. Product Website Analysis
11.7.2.1. Messages for Healthcare Professionals
11.7.2.2. Patient Support Services and Informative Downloads
11.7.2.3. Messages for Patients and Caregivers
11.7.2.4. Promoting New Formulation of Jetrea®
11.7.2.5. Platform to Report Adverse Events Associated with the Drug
 
 
12. SWOT ANALYSIS
12.1. Chapter Overview
12.2. Strengths
12.3. Weaknesses
12.4. Opportunities
12.5. Threats
 
13. CONCLUSION
13.1. The Back of the Eye Disorders Market is Characterized by a Robust Pipeline of Candidates Belonging to Different Drug Classes
13.2. Although Product Candidates are Being Developed to Treat a Number of Clinical Conditions, the Primary Focus is on Macular Degenerative Disorders
13.3. Increasing Partnerships Activity to Support Drug Development is Indicative of Future Opportunity
13.4. Currently, the Market is Led by Big Pharma Players; Many Start-ups, Though, are Making Significant Strides in this Domain
13.5. Multiple Novel Delivery Approaches are Being Investigated to Assist in Improving Patient Compliance 
13.6. Given the Presence of Blockbuster Drugs, and Several Late Stage Product Candidates, the Market is Poised to Grow Steadily in the Foreseen Future 
 
14. INTERVIEW TRANSCRIPTS
14.1. Chapter Overview
14.2. Elise Brownell, Senior Vice President of Operations and Project Management, Amarantus Bioscience 
14.3. Quinton Oswald, President and CEO, Neurotech Pharmaceuticals 
14.4 Samantha Cobb, CEO, AdAlta
 
15. APPENDIX: LIST OF DISCONTINUED MOLECULES
 
16. APPENDIX: TABULATED DATA
 
17. APPENDIX: LIST OF COMPANIES AND ORGANIZATIONS
 
 
Figure 3.1 Structure of Eye
 
Figure 3.2 Structure of Retina
 
Figure 3.3 Back of the Eye: Barriers
 
Figure 3.4 Back of the Eye: Routes of Administration
 
Figure 3.5 Back of the Eye Disorders: Treatment Options
 
Figure 3.6 Back of the Eye Disorders: Marketed Angiogenesis Inhibitors
 
Figure 3.7 Back of the Eye Disorders: Delivery Approaches
 
Figure 3.8 Back of the Eye Disorders: Marketed Implants
 
Figure 4.1 Back of the Eye Disorders, Clinical Pipeline: Distribution by Phase of Development
 
Figure 4.2 Back of the Eye Disorders, Clinical Pipeline: Distribution by Drug Class
 
Figure 4.3 Back of the Eye Disorders, Clinical Pipeline: Distribution by Type of Pathway
 
Figure 4.4 Back of the Eye Disorders, Clinical Pipeline: Distribution by Type of Molecular   Target (Cumulative)
 
Figure 4.5 Back of the Eye Disorders, Clinical Pipeline: Distribution by Type of Molecular Target (Individual)
 
Figure 4.6 Back of the Eye Disorders, Clinical Pipeline: Distribution by Target Indication
 
Figure 4.7 Back of the Eye Disorders, Clinical Pipeline: Distribution by Type of Therapy
 
Figure 4.8 Back of the Eye Disorders, Clinical Pipeline: Distribution by Route of Administration
 
Figure 4.9 Back of the Eye Disorders, Preclinical Pipeline: Distribution by Phase of Development
 
Figure 4.10 Back of the Eye Disorders, Preclinical Pipeline: Distribution by Drug Class
 
Figure 4.11 Back of the Eye Disorders, Preclinical Pipeline: Distribution by Target Indication
 
Figure 4.12 Back of the Eye Disorders Pipeline: Leading Players
 
Figure 4.13 Back of the Eye Disorders Pipeline: Most Prominent Hubs
 
Figure 4.14 Back of the Eye Disorders Pipeline: Developer Landscape, North America
 
Figure 4.15 Back of the Eye Disorders Pipeline: Developers Landscape, Europe 
 
Figure 4.16 Back of the Eye Disorders Pipeline: Developers Landscape, Asia Pacific
 
Figure 4.17 Back of the Eye Disorders Pipeline: Grid Analysis
 
Figure 5.1 Life Cycle Management Strategies
 
Figure 5.2 Macugen®: Mechanism of Action
 
Figure 5.3 Macugen®: Life Cycle Management
 
Figure 5.4 Lucentis®: Mechanism of Action
 
Figure 5.5 Lucentis®: Life Cycle Management
 
Figure 5.6 Lucentis®: Timeline of Approved Indications (US)
 
Figure 5.7 Lucentis®: Timeline of Approved Indications (Europe)
 
Figure 5.8 Lucentis®: Price (Annual Treatment Cost) Evolution Strategy (EU)
 
Figure 5.9 Eylea®: Mechanism of Action
 
Figure 5.10 Eylea®: Life Cycle Management
 
Figure 5.11 Eylea®: Timeline of Approved Indications
 
Figure 5.12 Jetrea®: Life Cycle Management
 
Figure 5.13 Jetrea®: Geographic Expansion
 
Figure 5.14 Conbercept: Mechanism of Action
 
Figure 5.15 Conbercept: Life Cycle Management
 
Figure 7.1 Overall Back of the Eye Disorders Market, 2017-2030 (USD Billion)
 
Figure 7.2 Overall Back of the Eye Disorders Market: Market Attractiveness Analysis by Indication, 2023-2030
 
Figure 7.3 Back of the Eye Disorders Market: Wet AMD, 2017-2030, Base Scenario (USD Billion)  
 
Figure 7.4 Back of the Eye Disorders Market: Dry AMD, 2021-2030, Base Scenario (USD Billion)
 
Figure 7.5 Back of the Eye Disorders Market: DME, 2017-2030, Base Scenario (USD Billion)
 
Figure 7.6 Back of the Eye Disorders Market: DR, 2017-2030, Base Scenario (USD Billion)
 
Figure 7.7 Back of the Eye Disorders Market: Stargardt Disease, 2023-2030, Base Scenario (USD Billion)
 
Figure 7.8 Back of the Eye Disorders Market: LHON, 2017-2030, Base Scenario (USD Billion)
 
Figure 7.9 Back of the Eye Disorders Market: Other Indications, 2017-2030, Base Scenario (USD Billion)
 
Figure 7.10 Back of the Eye Disorders Market: Distribution by Drug Classes, 2017, 2024 and 2030 
 
Figure 7.11 Back of the Eye Disorders Market: Distribution by Mechanism of Action, 2017, 2024 and 2030 
 
Figure 7.12 Back of the Eye Disorders Market: Distribution by Route of Administration, 2017, 2024 and 2030 
 
Figure 8.1 Back of the Eye: Drug Delivery Technologies
 
Figure 9.1 Visual Prosthesis / Bionic Eye: External and Implantable Modules
 
Figure 9.2 Visual Prosthesis / Bionic Eye: Steps of Operation 
 
Figure 9.3 Visual Prosthesis / Bionic Eye: Product Competitiveness Analysis
 
Figure 10.1 Back of the Eye Disorders Partnerships: Cumulative Trend (2013–2017)
 
Figure 10.2 Back of the Eye Disorders Partnerships: Distribution by Type of Partnership Model
 
Figure 10.3 Back of the Eye Disorders Partnerships: Most Active Players, 2013-2017
 
Figure 11.1 Promotional / Marketing Strategy: Product Website Analysis
 
Figure 11.2 Promotional / Marketing Strategy: Patient Support Services and Informative Downloads
 
Figure 11.3 Product Website Analysis: Macugen®, Focus on Access Program
 
Figure 11.4 Product Website Analysis: Macugen®, Distributor Information
 
Figure 11.5 Product Website Analysis: Lucentis®, Messages for Healthcare Professionals
 
Figure 11.6 Product Website Analysis: Lucentis®, Patient Support Program
 
Figure 11.7 Product Website Analysis: Lucentis®, Direct Program
 
Figure 11.8 Product Website Analysis: Lucentis®, Co-pay Card Program
 
Figure 11.9 Product Website Analysis: Lucentis®, Access Solutions
 
Figure 11.10 Product Website Analysis: Lucentis®, Genentech Access to Care Foundation
 
Figure 11.11 Product Website Analysis: Lucentis®, Messages for Patients
 
Figure 11.12 Product Website Analysis: Eylea®, inSight Platform
 
Figure 11.13 Product Website Analysis: Eylea®, Messages for Healthcare Professionals
 
Figure 11.14 Product Website Analysis: Eylea®, Patient Assistance Program
 
Figure 11.15 Product Website Analysis: Eylea®, Co-pay Card Program
 
Figure 11.16 Product Website Analysis: Eylea®, Co-pay Assistance Referral Program
 
Figure 11.17 Product Website Analysis: Eylea®, Messages for Patients and Caregivers
 
Figure 11.18 Product Website Analysis: Jetrea®, Messages for Healthcare Professionals
 
Figure 11.19 Product Website Analysis: Jetrea®, Clinical Trial and Dosing Information
 
Figure 11.20 Product Website Analysis: Jetrea®, JETREA CARE® Program
 
Figure 11.21 Product Website Analysis: Jetrea®, Co-pay Payment Portal
 
Figure 11.22 Product Website Analysis: Jetrea®, Distributor Information
 
Figure 11.23 Product Website Analysis: Jetrea®, Messages for Patients and Caregivers
 
Figure 11.24 Product Website Analysis: Jetrea®, Information on New Formulation
 
Figure 11.25 Product Website Analysis: Jetrea®, Information on Platform for Reporting Adverse Events
 
Figure 12.1 Back of the Eye Disorders SWOT Analysis: Overview
 
Figure 12.2 Back of the Eye Disorders SWOT Analysis: Strengths
 
Figure 12.3 Back of the Eye Disorders SWOT Analysis: Weaknesses
 
Figure 12.4 Back of the Eye Disorders SWOT Analysis: Opportunities
 
Figure 12.5 Back of the Eye Disorders SWOT Analysis: Threats
 
Figure 13.1 Back of the Eye Disorders: Clinical Stage Molecules by Key Drug Targets and Drug Classes
 
Figure 13.2 Back of the Eye Disorders: Key Disease Indications
 
Figure 13.3 Back of the Eye Disorders Market: Conservative, Base and Optimistic Forecast Scenarios, 2017, 2024 and 2030 (USD Billion) 
 
 
Table 3.1 Tissue Layers of the Eye
 
Table 3.2 Overview of Major Back of the Eye Disorders
 
Table 3.3 Back of the Eye Disorders: Marketed Implants
 
Table 4.1 Back of the Eye Disorders: Clinical Pipeline
 
Table 4.2 Back of the Eye Disorders: Preclinical Pipeline
 
Table 5.1 Differences between Eylea® and Zaltrap
 
Table 6.1 Back of the Eye Disorders: Late Stage Product Candidates 
 
Table 8.1 Back of the Eye Disorders: Drug Formulation Technologies
 
Table 8.2 Back of the Eye Disorders: Drug Delivery Technologies / Systems
 
Table 8.3 List of Drug Device Combinations / Implants
 
Table 9.1 List of Visual Prosthesis / Bionic Eye
 
Table 10.1 Back of the Eye Disorders: Partnerships
 
Table 11.1 Macugen®: Drug Overview
 
Table 11.2 Lucentis®: Drug Overview
 
Table 11.3 Eylea®: Drug Overview
 
Table 11.4 Jetrea®: Drug Overview
 
Table 16.1 Back of the Eye Disorders, Clinical Pipeline: Distribution by Phase of Development
 
Table 16.2 Back of the Eye Disorders, Clinical Pipeline: Distribution by Drug Class
 
Table 16.3 Back of the Eye Disorders, Clinical Pipeline: Distribution by Type of Pathway
 
Table 16.4 Back of the Eye Disorders, Clinical Pipeline: Distribution by Type of Molecular Target (Cumulative)
 
Table 16.5 Back of the Eye Disorders, Clinical Pipeline: Distribution by Type of Molecular Target (Individual)
 
Table 16.6 Back of the Eye Disorders, Clinical Pipeline: Distribution by Target Indication
 
Table 16.7 Back of the Eye Disorders, Clinical Pipeline: Distribution by Type of Therapy
 
Table 16.8 Back of the Eye Disorders, Clinical Pipeline: Distribution by Route of Administration
 
Table 16.9 Back of the Eye Disorders, Preclinical Pipeline: Distribution by Phase of Development
 
Table 16.10 Back of the Eye Disorders, Preclinical Pipeline: Distribution by Drug Class
 
Table 16.11 Back of the Eye Disorders, Preclinical Pipeline: Distribution by Target Indication
 
Table 16.12 Back of the Eye Disorders Pipeline: Leading Players
 
Table 16.13 Overall Back of the Eye Disorders Market, 2017-2030, Conservative Scenarios, Base Scenario and Optimistic Scenario (USD Billion)
 
Table 16.14 Overall Back of the Eye Disorders Market: Market Attractiveness Analysis by Indication, 2023-2030
 
Table 16.15 Back of the Eye Disorders Market: Wet AMD, 2017 – 2030, Conservative Scenario, Base Scenario and Optimistic Scenario (USD Billion)  
 
Table 16.16 Back of the Eye Disorders Market: Dry AMD, 2021 – 2030, Conservative Scenario, Base Scenario and Optimistic Scenario (USD Billion)
 
Table 16.17 Back of the Eye Disorders Market: DME, 2017 – 2030, Conservative Scenario, Base Scenario and Optimistic Scenario (USD Billion)
 
Table 16.18 Back of the Eye Disorders Market: DR, 2017 – 2030, Conservative Scenario, Base Scenario and Optimistic Scenario (USD Billion)
 
Table 16.19 Back of the Eye Disorders Market: Stargardt Disease, 2023 – 2030, Conservative Scenario, Base Scenario and Optimistic Scenario (USD Billion)
 
Table 16.20 Back of the Eye Disorders Market: LHON, 2017 – 2030, Conservative Scenario, Base Scenario and Optimistic Scenario (USD Billion)
 
Table 16.21 Back of the Eye Disorders Market: Other Indications, 2017 – 2030, Conservative Scenario, Base Scenario and Optimistic Scenario (USD Billion)
 
Table 16.22 Back of the Eye Disorders Market: Distribution by Drug Classes, 2017, 2024 and 2030
 
Figure 16.23 Back of the Eye Disorders Market: Distribution by Mechanism of Action, 2017, 2024 and 2030 
 
Figure 16.24 Back of the Eye Disorders Market: Distribution by Route of Administration, 2017, 2024 and 2030 
 
Table 16.25 Back of the Eye Disorders Partnerships: Cumulative Trend (2013–2017)
 
Table 16.26 Back of the Eye Disorders Partnerships: Distribution by Type of Partnership Model
 
Table 16.27 Back of the Eye Disorders Market: Conservative, Base and Optimistic Forecast Scenarios, 2017, 2024 and 2030 (USD Billion 
 

 

The following companies and organizations have been mentioned in the report.

 

1                    4D Molecular Therapeutics

2                    AbbVie

3                    Academy of Finland

4                    Accredo Health Group

5                    Achillion Pharmaceuticals

6                    Aciont

7                    ActiveSite Pharmaceuticals

8                    Acucela

9                    AdAlta

10                Adverum Biotechnologies

11                Aegerion Pharmaceuticals

12                Aerie Pharmaceuticals

13                Aerpio Therapeutics

14                Affilogic

15                AGTC

16                Alcon (a Novartis division)

17                Alfred Hospital

18                Alimera Sciences

19                Alkeus Pharmaceuticals

20                Allegro Ophthalmics

21                Allergan

22                Allinky Biopharma

23                ALTEOGEN

24                Amarantus BioScience

25                Amarna Therapeutics

26                Ampio Pharmaceuticals

27                Amyndas Pharmaceuticals

28                Apellis Pharmaceuticals

29                Apexian Pharmaceuticals

30                Apexigen

31                Apollo Endosurgery

32                Appletree CI Group

33                Araim Pharmaceuticals

34                Ascendis Pharma

35                AsclepiX Therapeutics

36                Astellas Institute for Regenerative Medicine (AIRM)

37                Astellas Pharma

38                Athena Vision

39                AyuVis Research

40                Bascom Palmer Eye Institute

41                Bausch + Lomb

42                Bayer

43                BCM Families Foundation

44                Benitec Biopharma

45                Besse Medical

46                Bicycle Therapeutics

47                BIOCND

48                Biogen

49                BioInvent

50                Biokine Therapeutics

51                BioLight Lifesciences

52                Bionic Sight

53                Bionic Vision Technologies (BVT)

54                BIOPHYTIS

55                BioTime

56                Biovista

57                Case Western Reserve University (CWRU)

58                Catalent

59                Catalyst Biosciences

60                Université catholique de Louvain

61                Cellular Dynamics International (CDI)

62                Ceregene

63                Charlesson

64                Chengdu Kanghong Pharmaceuticals Group

65                Children's Hospital of Philadelphia

66                Cipla BioTec

67                Clanotech

68                Clearside Biomedical

69                Clonz Biotech

70                Coherus Biosciences

71                Columbia University

72                CoMentis

73                Copernicus Therapeutics

74                Critical Pharmaceuticals

75                CuraScript SD

76                CVS Caremark

77                Daiichi Sankyo

78                DelSiTech

79                Dompé

80                Editas Medicine

81                Eleven Biotherapeutics

82                ElsaLys Biotech

83                Envisia Therapeutics

84                Exonate

85                EyeGate Pharma

86                Eyemedics

87                Eyetech Pharmaceuticals

88                Eyevensys

89                Ferrer

90                Fondation Voir et Entendre

91                Formycon

92                ForSight VISION 4

93                Foundation Fighting Blindness (FFB)

94                FUJIFILM Holdings

95                Galapagos

96                Galaxy Ophthalmics

97                Gemini Therapeutics

98                Genable Technologies

99                Gene Signal

100            Gene Techno Science

101            Genaera Corporation

102            Genentech

103            Genethon

104            GenSight Biologics

105            Gilead Sciences

106            Graybug Vision

107            Grey Innovation

108            GlaxoSmithKline (GSK)

109            Gunma University

110            Hadassah Medical Center

111            Hanmi Pharmaceutical

112            Harvard Medical School (HMS)

113            Healios

114            Hemera Biosciences

115            Henogen (a subsidiary of the Novasep group)

116            HORAMA

117            Huabo Biopharm

118            i2 Pharmaceuticals

119            Ichor Therapeutics

120            Icon Bioscience

121            Iconic Therapeutics

122            Illinois Institute of Technology

123            Inception Sciences

124            InFlectis BioScience

125            InnoCore Pharma

126            Innovent Biologics

127            Intas Pharmaceuticals

128            Intrexon

129            Ionis Pharmaceuticals

130            I'rom Group

131            Ixchel Pharma

132            Janssen

133            jCyte

134            Jeil Pharmaceutical

135            Jiangsu T-mab BioPharma

136            Johns Hopkins University

137            K.N. Toosi University of Technology

138            Kala Pharmaceuticals

139            Kalos Therapeutics

140            KalVista Pharmaceuticals

141            KMG Pharma

142            Kodiak Sciences

143            Kowa Company

144            Laboratoire de Génétique Médicale de Strasbourg

145            LeadArtis

146            Lin Bio Science

147            Lonza

148            Loyola University Chicago

149            Lpath

150            Massachusetts General Hospital

151            Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

152            McKesson

153            Medical College of Wisconsin (MCW)

154            MeiraGTx

155            Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center

156            Merck

157            MimeTech

158            Mimetogen Pharmaceuticals

159            MiniFAB

160            Mitotech

161            Molecular Partners

162            Monash University

163            MorphoSys

164            Mosaic Biosciences

165            M's Science Corporation

166            Mystic Pharmaceuticals

167            Nano Retina

168            Nanovision

169            National Institutes of Health (NIH)

170            Nektar Therapeutics

171            Neovacs

172            Neurotech

173            NeXstar Pharmaceuticals

174            Novartis

175            Novelion Therapeutics

176            Ocata Therapeutics

177            OccuRx

178            Ocugen

179            Ocular Therapeutix

180            Oculis

181            OcuNexus Therapeutics

182            Odylia Therapeutics

183            Ohr Pharmaceutical

184            OliX Pharmaceuticals

185            Omeros

186            Opthea

187            Ophthotech

188            Opsis Therapeutics

189            Optobionics

190            Casey Eye Institute, Oregon Health & Science University (OHSU)

191            Osaka University

192            Oxford BioMedica

193            Oxular

194            Paloma Pharmaceuticals

195            Pangere Center for Inherited Retinal Diseases, The Chicago Lighthouse

196            PanOptica

197            Patheon

198            Pfenex

199            Pfizer

200            Pieris Pharmaceuticals

201            Pixium Vision

202            Polus

203            PolyActiva

204            Potentia Pharmaceuticals

205            Preceyes

206            ProLynx 

207            Promedior

208            ProQR

209            Proretina Therapeutics

210            Proteostasis Therapeutics

211            pSivida

212            Qilu Pharmaceuticals

213            Quark Pharmaceuticals

214            Ra Pharma

215            Recursion Pharmaceuticals

216            Regeneron Pharmaceuticals

217            REGENXBIO

218            Reliance RX

219            ReNeuron

220            Replenish

221            Retina Foundation of the Southwest

222            Retina Implant

223            Retinagenix

224            RetroSense Therapeutics

225            Ribomic

226            Roche

227            Royal DSM

228            RWTH Aachen University

229            RXi Pharmaceuticals

230            Saksin Lifesciences

231            Samsung Bioepis

232            SanBio

233            Sanofi

234            Santen Pharmaceuticals

235            Santhera Pharmaceuticals

236            Santo Holding

237            SciFluor Life Sciences

238            Second Sight

239            Selexis

240            SENJU Pharmaceutical

241            SENS Research Foundation

242            SGS Life Science

243            Shanghai Jiao-Tong University

244            Sonikure Technology

245            Spark Therapeutics

246            Stanford University

247            Stealth BioTherapeutics

248            Sumitomo Dainippon Pharma

249            Sun Pharmaceutical

250            Syracuse University

251            Taiwan Liposome Company

252            Tanox

253            Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary

254            The University of Manchester

255            University of Massachusetts Medical School

256            University of Pennsylvania

257            TheraKine

258            ThromboGenics

259            TRACON Pharmaceuticals

260            University of Tübingen

261            Tyrogenex

262            UCL Business

263            Universal Cells

264            University License Equity Holding (ULEHI), University of Colorado

265            University of California

266            University of Melbourne

267            University of Pittsburgh Medical Center (UPMC)

268            University of Utah

269            University of Virginia School of Medicine

270            VAXIER THERAPEUTICS

271            Versant Ventures

272            Verseon

273            VESSL Therapeutics

274            Vision Medicines

275            Vision Technologies

276            Walgreens Specialty Pharmacy

277            Wellstat Ophthalmics Corporation

278            WuXi AppTec

279            Xbrane Biopharma

280            XL Vision Sciences

 

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