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Dendritic Cell and Tumor Cell Cancer Vaccines Market, 2016-2030

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    September 2016

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Example Insights

  1. Over 60 dendritic cell and tumor cell cancer vaccines are currently in clinical / preclinical stages of development; 70% of the pipeline comprises of dendritic cell cancer vaccines.
  2. 86% of the pipeline therapies are being developed as treatment options for solid tumors, including lung cancers, glioblastoma, prostate cancer and melanoma. In fact, two of the three marketed dendritic cell vaccines, PROVENGE® and TAPCells® (Chile), are approved for treatment of prostate cancer.  In addition, a dendritic cell vaccine is also being developed as a first targeted therapy for the treatment of glioblastoma multiforme, the most common and aggressive form of brain cancer with poor survival rates.
  3. The innovation in this emerging field is largely driven by smaller firms, specifically start-ups. Notable examples of small firms and start-ups include (in alphabetical order) Asterias Biotherapeutics, AVAX Technologies, DCPrime, Gradalis, Heat Biologics, ImmunoCellular Therapeutics, Immunicum,  MolecuVax, Northwest Biotherapeutics, PDC*line Pharma, Pique Therapeutics, Regeneus, Tessa Therapeutics, Vaccinogen and XEME Biopharma. These companies have developed technology platforms that enhance the efficacy of therapeutic vaccines. Examples of some novel technology platforms include (in alphabetical order) AGGREGON™, DCOne®, ImPACT and Vigil®.
  4. Several strategic investors and venture capitalists have strongly backed the potential offered by this domain. We identified over 125 instances of funding over the last few years. The total amount invested has been close to USD 2.0 billion; of this, USD 1.5 billion came during the last five years alone.
  5. Several agreements have been inked amongst the stakeholders over past few years. We captured over 100 partnerships that are categorized across product development / commercialization agreement, manufacturing / supply agreement, service agreement, technology acquisition / licensing, clinical trial collaboration, research collaboration and others. Of these, clinical trial collaborations and technology acquisition / licensing together account for close to 50% share.
  6. Prominent academic players, including (in alphabetical order) the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, King’s College London, Mary Crowley Research Cancer Center, MD Anderson Cancer Center, University of Chile, and University of Pennsylvania, have entered into research collaborations with industry players to conduct further research for the improvement of existing therapies and the development of novel technologies.
  7. Overall, the dendritic cell and tumor cell cancer vaccines market is expected to grow at a healthy annual rate of 20.7% till 2030. Dendritic cell vaccines are likely to garner the most attention in near future. Post 2020, we expect tumor cell vaccines to begin to actively contribute to the market’s revenues primarily driven by approval of Vigil®.

Overview

Cancer is an extremely complex disease and medical science is still trying to understand the numerous factors responsible for its origin, propagation, spread (metastasis) and relapse. In 2016, an estimated 1.7 million new cancer cases were reported in the US alone. Furthermore, as projected by the World Health Organization (WHO), the annual incidence of cancer worldwide is expected to rise to 24 million by 2035. Currently, there is a huge unmet need for advanced and efficient treatment interventions for cancer. Standard approaches that are currently employed to treat cancer include surgery, radiation therapy and chemotherapy. Although all the three approaches are recognized as the current standard of care in cancer treatment, there are some risks and drawbacks associated with these methods.

Many pharmaceutical companies are working on identifying ways to improve these treatment methods, as well as develop new cancer therapies. One of the current focus areas is immunotherapy; it makes use of the body’s own immune system, or its components, to fight cancer. So far, antibody based therapeutics, including monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), bispecific antibodies (bsAbs) and antibody drug conjugates (ADCs), have had significant success as targeted anti-cancer therapies. Apart from antibody based therapies, there are other classes of immunotherapeutics that have been / are being developed to manage and treat cancer; these include immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs), therapeutic cancer vaccines and other whole cell based therapies.

The USFDA has approved cancer prevention vaccines (the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine andhepatitis B vaccine (HBV)) that prevent infection with cancer-causing viruses. Gardasil, Gardasil 9 and Cervarix are approved for the prevention of HPV-caused cancers whereas Engerix-B, Recombivax HB, Twinrix and Pediarix are approved for the prevention of chronic HBV infection. Although, preventive vaccines offer several benefits, the fact that viruses do not cause most cancers cannot be overlooked. Therefore, several companies are developing therapeutic vaccines that target specific cancers.

As of now, there are three marketed therapeutic cancer vaccines commercially available in different geographies; these include PROVENGE (US), CreaVax-RCC (South Korea) and TAPCells (Chile). Despite the limited success of PROVENGE, the first marketed dendritic cell vaccine, several stakeholders are actively engaged in the development of dendritic cell and tumor cell-based vaccines.

 

Scope of the Report

The "Dendritic Cell and Tumor Cell Cancer Vaccines Market, 2016-2030" offers a comprehensive analysis of the current market landscape and future outlook of the growing pipeline of products in the therapeutic vaccines segment of the immuno-oncology domain. Currently, there are five types of such vaccines; these are dendritic cell vaccines, tumor cell vaccines, antigen / peptide vaccines, DNA vaccines and anti-idiotypic vaccines. This report is focused on the recent developments and the future potential of dendritic cell vaccines (dendritic cell loaded vaccines) and tumor cell vaccines (tumor cell loaded vaccines).  

During the course of our study, we identified a variety of dendritic cell and tumor cell cancer vaccines across various stages of development. More than 75% of these product candidates are currently in the clinical stages of development. With a rich development pipeline, this segment of the immunotherapy market has managed to capture the interest of several strategic investors and venture capital firms.  During our research, we observed that over USD 1.5 billion has already been invested in this domain in past five years. Owing to the existing unmet demand for safe and effective cancer therapies and given the innate advantages of immunotherapies, we believe that dendritic cell and tumor cell cancer vaccines present lucrative opportunities for both therapy developers and investors alike.

One of the key objectives of the report was to understand the primary growth drivers and estimate the future size of the market. For this purpose, we took into consideration the following parameters:

  • The dendritic cell and tumor cell vaccines pipeline, including marketed, clinical and preclinical therapies, in terms of phase of development, key players, type of donor and target indications.
  • The existing and emerging technology platforms used for the development of innovative variants of cancer vaccines.
  • The partnerships that have taken place in the recent past covering clinical trial collaborations, research collaborations, manufacturing and services agreements, license agreements specific to technology platforms and agreements related to the co-development and co-commercialization of promising candidates.
  • Various investments and grants received by companies focused in this area including capital raised from IPOs and subsequent offerings.
  • The performance of competing drug classes, complex manufacturing processes, batch-wise variability and other inherent threats to growth of the market in the short and long term.

The report offers comprehensive profiles highlighting developmental history, clinical trial details and key clinical results as well as the future market opportunity for marketed and late stage (phase III) candidates. This opportunity is linked to the target consumer segments, likely adoption rate and expected pricing. We have provided an estimate of the size of the market in the short-mid-term and long term for the period between 2016 and 2030. The base year for the report is 2016. To account for the uncertainties associated with the development of novel therapeutic classes and to add robustness to our model, we have provided three forecast scenarios portraying the conservative, base, and optimistic tracks of the market’s evolution.

Contents

Chapter 2  provides an executive summary of the report. It offers a high level view on evolution of the dendritic cell and tumor cell cancer vaccines market in the mid to long term.  

Chapter 3  provides information on the rising global burden of cancer and the various available therapeutic options. The chapter also includes a discussion on the emergence of immunotherapies and their advantages over current standard of care therapies.

Chapter 4  provides an introduction to cancer vaccines, including details on their history of development, respective mechanisms of action and the various challenges associated with their development and production. Further, the chapter includes brief overviews of the different types of cancer vaccines that are under development for the treatment of various oncological indications. It also includes a comprehensive compilation of the regulatory guidelines established to monitor, manage and regulate the development of therapeutic cancer vaccines.

Chapter 5  features a detailed and comprehensive analysis of the current market landscape of dendritic cell and tumor cell cancer vaccines. It includes information, such as the target indications, current phase of development, the type of donor and the type of vaccines, on the various marketed and pipeline therapies.

Chapter 6  contains a detailed discussion on dendritic cell cancer vaccines. The chapter includes detailed profiles of the marketed and phase III vaccines in this category. Each profile contains a brief discussion on the history of development of the particular therapy, its mechanism of action, dosage regimen, information on its clinical trials and key clinical insights. Further, the profiles provide details on the developer, including financial information, existing intellectual property, current product portfolio and manufacturing capabilities.

Chapter 7  provides a detailed discussion on tumor cell cancer vaccines. Similar to Chapter 6, the chapter also includes comprehensive profiles of the phase III tumor cell cancer vaccines. Each profile covers information such as the history of development of a particular therapy, its mechanism of action, dosage regimen, information on clinical trials and key clinical results. Further, it provides information about the developer as well, including details on financials, existing intellectual property, product portfolio and manufacturing facilities. In addition, this chapter consists of a case study on NewLink Genetics and its portfolio of products based on the HyperAcute® technology.

Chapter 8  includes a detailed discussion on the various technology platforms that are currently being used for the development of dendritic cell and tumor cell cancer vaccines.

Chapter 9  presents a detailed study of the investments made in this domain. The funding instances captured in the chapter include venture capital financing, public offerings, grants and other forms of equity / debt financing. The analysis highlights the growing interest of the VC community and other strategic investors in this segment of the immunotherapy market.

Chapter 10  features a comprehensive analysis of the collaborations and partnerships that have been forged between the players in this market. In the chapter, we have discussed the various types of partnership models that are employed by stakeholders in this domain. We have also categorized the deals / agreements, which we came across during our research, based on the aforementioned models and provided our reviewed the trend of partnerships over time.

Chapter 11  presents a detailed market forecast for dendritic cell and tumor cell cancer vaccines and a discussion on the overall financial opportunity that exists in this domain. It includes future sales projections for molecules in advanced stages of development. These projections took into account the target patient population, the existence of competing drugs or drug classes, likely adoption rate and the expected price of each individual therapy.

Chapter 12  provides a summary of the overall report. In this chapter, we present a list of key takeaways from the report and our independent opinion on the nature and potential of the cancer vaccines market. The insights presented in this chapter are based on the research and analysis described in the previous chapters.

Chapter 13  contains a collection of interview transcripts of discussions held with some of the key players in the industry.

Chapters 14 and 15  are appendices, which provide tabulated data and a list of companies mentioned in the report, respectively.

Table of Contents

1. PREFACE
1.1. Scope of the Report
1.2. Research Methodology
1.3. Chapter Outlines
 
2. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
 
3. INTRODUCTION
3.1. Cancer: An Overview
3.2. Current Statistics and Global Burden of the Disease
3.3. The Four Pillars of Cancer Therapy
3.4. Immunotherapy: Gaining Strong Foothold
3.5. Classification of Cancer Immunotherapies
3.5.1. By Mechanism of Action
3.5.2. By Type of Target
3.5.3. By Approach
3.5.4. By Product Class
3.5.4.1. Therapeutic Antibodies
3.5.4.1.1. Monoclonal Antibodies
3.5.4.1.2. Bispecific Antibodies
3.5.4.1.3. Antibody Drug Conjugates
3.5.4.1.4. Engineered Antibodies
3.5.4.2. Cytokines
3.5.4.3. Cell Based Therapies
3.5.4.4. Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors
3.5.4.5. Cancer Vaccines
 
4. CANCER VACCINES
4.1. Vaccines: An Overview
4.2. Cancer Vaccines: An Overview
4.2.1. Cancer Vaccines: History of Development
4.2.2. Tumor Evasion from Immune Surveillance
4.2.3. Potential Targets
4.3. Types of Cancer Vaccines
4.3.1. Classification Based on Type of Cancer Vaccine
4.3.1.1. Prophylactic (Preventive) Vaccines
4.3.1.2. Therapeutic (Treatment) Vaccines
4.3.2. Classification Based on Type of Donor
4.3.2.1. Autologous Cancer Vaccines
4.3.2.2. Allogeneic Cancer Vaccines
4.3.3. Classification Based on Composition
4.3.3.1. Antigen Vaccines
4.3.3.2. Anti- Idiotypic Vaccines
4.3.3.3. DNA Vaccines
4.3.3.4. Dendritic Cell Vaccines
4.3.3.5. Tumor Cell Vaccines
4.4. Challenges Associated with Cancer Vaccines
 
4.5. Regulatory Guidelines for Therapeutic Cancer Vaccines
4.5.1. Considerations for All Three Clinical Trial Phases
4.5.1.1. Selection of Patient Population on the Basis of Disease Setting, Tumor Heterogeneity and Target Antigen
4.5.1.2. Monitoring the Immune Response
4.5.1.3. Progression / Recurrence of the Disease Post Treatment with Cancer Vaccines
4.5.2. Considerations for Early Clinical Trials
4.5.2.1. Starting Dose and Dosing Schedule
4.5.2.2. Dose Escalation
4.5.2.3. Single-arm versus Randomized Phase II Trials
4.5.3. Considerations for Late Phase Clinical Trials
4.5.3.1. Safety Profile from Early Phase Clinical Trials
4.5.3.2. Endpoints
4.5.3.3. Superiority Versus Non- Inferiority Design
4.5.3.4. Selection of Control
4.5.3.5. Delayed Vaccine Effect
4.5.3.6. Autologous Vaccine Trials
4.5.4. Accelerated Approval Regulations
 
5. MARKET OVERVIEW
5.1. Chapter Overview
5.2. Dendritic Cell and Tumor Cell Cancer Vaccines: A Robust Pipeline
5.3. Pipeline Analysis
5.3.1. Cancer Vaccines: Distribution by Type of Cancer Vaccine
5.3.2. Cancer Vaccines: Distribution by Phase of Development
5.3.3. Cancer Vaccines: Distribution by Type of Oncological Indication
5.3.3.1. Cancer Vaccines: Distribution by Hematological Cancers
5.3.3.2. Cancer Vaccines: Distribution by Non-Hematological Cancers
5.3.4. Cancer Vaccines: Distribution by Type of Donor
 
6. DENDRITIC CANCER CELL VACCINES
6.1. Chapter Overview
6.2. Dendritic Cell Cancer Vaccines: An Introduction
6.3. Dendritic Cell Cancer Vaccines: Mechanism of Action
6.4. Dendritic Cell Cancer Vaccines: Pipeline
 
6.5. Dendreon Corporation (A Subsidiary of Valeant Pharmaceuticals)
6.5.1. Company Overview
6.5.2. Financial Performance
6.5.3. Technology Overview
6.5.3.1. Antigen Delivery Cassette Technology
6.5.4. Patent Portfolio
6.5.5. Manufacturing Facilities
6.5.6. Product Portfolio
6.5.6.1. PROVENGE / Sipuleucel-T
6.5.6.1.1. Product Overview
6.5.6.1.2. History of Development
6.5.6.1.3. Dosage Regimen
6.5.6.1.4. Historical Sales
6.5.6.1.5. Treatment Cost and Reimbursement
6.5.6.1.6. Current Status of Development
6.5.6.1.7. Clinical Trials
6.5.6.1.8. Key Clinical Trial Results
 
6.6. JW CreaGene
6.6.1. Company Overview
6.6.2. Technology Overview
6.6.2.1. DC Technology
6.6.3. Patent Portfolio
6.6.4. Product Portfolio
6.6.4.1. CreaVax-RCC
6.6.4.1.1. Product Overview
6.6.4.1.2. Dosage Regimen
6.6.4.1.3. Clinical Trials
6.6.4.2. CreaVax-HCC
6.6.4.2.1. Product Overview
6.6.4.2.2. Current Status of Development
6.6.4.2.3. Clinical Trials
 
6.7. Oncobiomed
6.7.1. Company Overview
6.7.2. Technology Overview
6.7.2.1. TAPCells Technology
6.7.3. Patent Portfolio
6.7.4. Product Portfolio
6.7.4.1. TAPCells
6.7.4.1.1. Product Overview
6.7.4.1.2. Dosage Regimen
6.7.4.1.3. Clinical Trials
 
6.8. Argos Therapeutics
6.8.1. Company Overview
6.8.2. Financial Performance
6.8.3. Technology Overview
6.8.3.1. Arcelis Technology
6.8.4. Patent Portfolio
6.8.5. Manufacturing Facilities
6.8.6. Product Portfolio
6.8.6.1. AGS-003
6.8.6.1.1. Product Overview
6.8.6.1.2. History of Development
6.8.6.1.3. Dosage Regimen
6.8.6.1.4. Current Status of Development
6.8.6.1.5. Clinical Trials
6.8.6.1.6. Key Clinical Trial Results
 
6.9. ImmunoCellular Therapeutics
6.9.1. Company Overview
6.9.2. Financial Performance
6.9.3. Technology Overview
6.9.3.1. Dendritic Cell (DC)-Based Immunotherapy
6.9.3.2. Stem-to-T-cell Program
6.9.4. Patent Portfolio
6.9.5. Manufacturing Facilities
6.9.6. Product Portfolio
6.9.6.1. ICT-107
6.9.6.1.1. Product Overview
6.9.6.1.2. History of Development
6.9.6.1.3. Dosage Regimen
6.9.6.1.4. Current Status of Development
6.9.6.1.5. Clinical Trials
6.9.6.1.6. Key Clinical Trial Results
 
6.10. Northwest Biotherapeutics
6.10.1. Company Overview
6.10.2. Financial Performance
6.10.3. Technology Overview
6.10.3.1. DCVax Technology
6.10.4. Patent Portfolio
6.10.5. Manufacturing Facilities
6.10.6. Product Portfolio
6.10.6.1. DCVax-L
6.10.6.1.1. Product Overview
6.10.6.1.2. History of Development
6.10.6.1.3. Dosage Regimen
6.10.6.1.4. Current Status of Development
6.10.6.1.5. Clinical Trials
6.10.6.1.6. Key Clinical Trial Results
 
6.11. SOTIO (Acquired by PPF Group)
6.11.1. Company Overview
6.11.2. Financial Performance
6.11.3. Technology Overview
6.11.3.1. Active Cellular Immunotherapy Multiple Antigen Presentation
6.11.4. Patent Portfolio
6.11.5. Manufacturing Facilities
6.11.6. Product Portfolio
6.11.6.1. DCVAC/PCa
6.11.6.1.1. Product Overview
6.11.6.1.2. History of Development
6.11.6.1.3. Dosage Regimen
6.11.6.1.4. Current Status of Development
6.11.6.1.5. Clinical Trials
6.11.6.1.6. Key Clinical Results
 
6.12. Dendritic Cell Cancer Vaccines: Key Drivers and Restraints
 
7. TUMOR CELL CANCER VACCINES
7.1. Chapter Overview
7.2. Tumor Cell Cancer Vaccines: An Overview
7.3. Tumor Cell Cancer Vaccines: Mechanism of Action
7.4. Tumor Cell Cancer Vaccines: Pipeline
 
7.5. Vaccinogen
7.5.1. Company Overview
7.5.2. Financial Performance
7.5.3. Technology Overview
7.5.3.1. OncoVAX Technology Platform
7.5.3.2. HuMabs
7.5.3.3. DiCAST
7.5.4. Patent Portfolio
7.5.5. Manufacturing Facilities
7.5.6. Product Portfolio
7.5.6.1. OncoVAX
7.5.6.1.1. Product Overview
7.5.6.1.2. History of Development
7.5.6.1.3. Production Process
7.5.6.1.4. Dosage Regimen
7.5.6.1.5. Current Status of Development
7.5.6.1.6. Clinical Trials
7.5.6.1.7. Key Clinical Trial Results
 
7.6. Gradalis
7.6.1. Company Overview
7.6.2. Technology Overview
7.6.2.1. Vigil Platform
7.6.3. Patent Portfolio
7.6.4. Product Portfolio
7.6.4.1. Vigil
7.6.4.1.1. Product Overview
7.6.4.1.2. History of Development
7.6.4.1.3. Production Process
7.6.4.1.4. Dosage Regimen
7.6.4.1.5. Current Status of Development
7.6.4.1.6. Clinical Trials
7.6.4.1.7. Key Clinical Trial Results
 
7.7. Case Study: HyperAcute Cellular Immunotherapy
7.7.1. NewLink Genetics
7.7.1.1. Company Overview
7.7.1.2. Financial Performance
7.7.1.3. Technology Overview
7.7.1.3.1. HyperAcute Cellular Immunotherapy
7.7.1.4. Patent Portfolio
7.7.1.5. Manufacturing Facilities
7.7.1.6. Product Portfolio
7.7.1.6.1. Algenpantucel- L
7.7.1.6.2. Tergenpumatucel-L
 
7.8. Tumor Cell Vaccines: Drivers and Restraints
 
8. KEY TECHNOLOGIES
8.1. Chapter Overview
8.2. Asterias Biotherapeutics
8.2.1. Company Overview
8.2.2. Technology Platforms
8.2.2.1. Asterias’ Cell Therapy Platform
8.2.2.2. Pluripotent Stem Cell Platform
8.2.3. Pipeline
 
8.3. AVAX Technologies
8.3.1. Company Overview
8.3.2. Technology Platforms
8.3.2.1. Autologous Cell (AC) Vaccine Technology
8.3.3. Pipeline
 
8.4. DCPrime
8.4.1. Company Overview
8.4.2. Technology Platforms
8.4.2.1. DCOne
8.4.3. Pipeline
 
8.5. Heat Biologics
8.5.1. Company overview
8.5.2. Technology Platforms
8.5.2.1. ImPACT
8.5.2.2. ComPACT
8.5.3. Pipeline
 
8.6. Immunicum
8.6.1. Company Overview
8.6.2. Technology Platforms
8.6.2.1. COMBIG
8.6.2.1.1. INTUVAX
8.6.2.1.2. SUBCUVAX
8.6.3. Pipeline
 
8.7. XEME Biopharma
8.7.1. Company Overview
8.7.2. Technology Platforms
8.7.2.1. AGGREGON™
8.7.3. Pipeline
 
9. VENTURE CAPITAL FUNDING
9.1. Chapter Overview
9.2. Types of Funding
9.3. Cancer Vaccines Market: Funding Instances
9.4. Cancer Vaccines Market: Rising Venture Capital Interest
9.5. Distribution of Funding Instances by Type of Funding
9.6. Leading Players: Distribution by Number of Funding Instances
9.7. Cancer Vaccines: Analysis by Type of Investment and Amount Invested
 
10. PARTNERSHIPS AND COLLABORATIONS
10.1. Chapter Overview
10.2. Partnerships Models / Agreements
10.3. Cancer Vaccines: List of Partnerships
10.4. Cancer Vaccines: Growing Trend of Partnerships
 
11. MARKET FORECAST
11.1. Chapter Overview
11.2. Scope and Limitations
11.3. Forecast Methodology
11.4. Overall Cancer Vaccines Market, 2016 - 2030
11.4.1. Overall Cancer Vaccines Market: Distribution by Type of Vaccine
 
11.5. Individual Therapy Forecast
11.5.1. PROVENGE (Dendreon Corporation / Valeant Pharmaceuticals)
11.5.1.1. Target Patient Population
11.5.1.2. Sales Forecast
 
11.5.2. DCVax-L / DCVax-Brain (Northwest Biotherapeutics)
11.5.2.1. Target Patient Population
11.5.2.2. Sales Forecast
 
11.5.3. AGS-003 (Argos Therapeutics)
11.5.3.1. Target Patient Population
11.5.3.2. Sales Forecast
 
11.5.4. DCVAC/PCa (SOTIO)
11.5.4.1. Target Patient Population
11.5.4.2. Sales Forecast
 
11.5.5. Vigil (Gradalis)
11.5.5.1. Target Patient Population
11.5.5.2. Sales Forecast
 
11.5.6. AST-VAC1 / GRNVAC1 (Asterias Biotherapeutics)
11.5.6.1. Target Patient Population
11.5.6.2. Sales Forecast
 
11.5.7. M-VAX (AVAX Technologies)
11.5.7.1. Target Patient Population
11.5.7.2. Sales Forecast
 
11.5.8. ICT-107 (ImmunoCellular Therapeutics)
11.5.8.1. Target Patient Population
11.5.8.2. Sales Forecast
 
11.5.9. OncoVAX (Vaccinogen)
11.5.9.1. Target Patient Population
11.5.9.2. Sales Forecast
 
11.5.10. MX-225 (Aurora Biopharma)
11.5.10.1. Target Patient Population
11.5.10.2. Sales Forecast
 
12. CONCLUSION
12.1. A Robust Pipeline Dominated by Dendritic Cell Vaccine Candidates
12.2. Allogeneic Off-the-Shelf Vaccines Being Developed to Overcome Manufacturing Challenges Associated with Personalized Autologous Therapies
12.3. An Active Market Segment Primarily Driven by Start-Ups and Small Companies
12.4. Broad Spectrum Therapies that are Currently Focused Mainly on Lung Cancer and Melanoma
12.5. Innovative Technology Platforms are a Key Enabler
12.6. Lucrative Future Opportunity Despite the Limited Success of Currently Marketed Therapies
 
13. INTERVIEW TRANSCRIPTS
 
14. APPENDIX: TABULATED DATA
 
15. APPENDIX: LIST OF COMPANIES AND ORGANIZATIONS

List of Figures

Figure 3.1 Global Cancer Incidence: Distribution by Type of Cancer
Figure 3.2 Lung Cancer: Estimated New Cases in 2015 (Thousands)
Figure 3.3 Breast Cancer: Estimated New Cases in 2015 (Thousands)
Figure 3.4 Colorectal Cancer: Estimated New Cases in 2015 (Thousands)
Figure 3.5 The Four Pillars of Cancer Therapy
Figure 3.6 Differences between Active and Passive Immunotherapy
Figure 3.7 Differences between Specific and Non-Specific Immunotherapy
Figure 3.8 Components of ADCs
Figure 4.1 APC-T-cell Interaction: Fate of T-cells
Figure 4.2 Cancer Vaccines: Historical Milestones
Figure 4.3 Interaction between Tumor Cells and the Immune System
Figure 5.1 Cancer Vaccines: Distribution by Type of Vaccine
Figure 5.2 Cancer Vaccines: Distribution by Phase of Development
Figure 5.3 Cancer Vaccines: Distribution by Phase of Development (Marketed / PIII / PII / PI / Preclinical)
Figure 5.4 Cancer Vaccines: Distribution by Therapeutic Area
Figure 5.5 Cancer Vaccines: Distribution by Hematological Cancers and Type of Vaccine
Figure 5.6 Cancer Vaccines: Distribution by Non-Hematological Cancers and Type of Vaccine
Figure 5.7 Cancer Vaccines: Distribution by Type of Donor
Figure 6.1 Stages of Immunostimulation by Dendritic Cells
Figure 6.2 Dendreon Corporation: Revenues, 2010-2013 (USD Million)
Figure 6.3 PROVENGE: Historical Timeline
Figure 6.4 PROVENGE: Historical Sales, 2011-2015 (USD Million)
Figure 6.5 Argos Therapeutics: Revenues, 2012-2016 (USD Million)
Figure 6.6 Argos Therapeutics: Funding Instances
Figure 6.7 AGS-003: Historical Timeline
Figure 6.8 ImmunoCellular Therapeutics: Funding Instances (USD Million)
Figure 6.9 DC-based Immunotherapeutics: Manufacturing Process
Figure 6.10 ICT-107: Historical Timeline
Figure 6.11 Northwest Biotherapeutics: Revenue, 2011-2015 (USD Million)
Figure 6.12 Northwest Biotherapeutics: Funding Instances (USD Million)
Figure 6.13 DCVax-L: Historical Timeline
Figure 6.14 PPF Group: Revenues, 2011-2015 (EUR Billion)
Figure 6.15 DCVAC/PCa: Historical Timeline
Figure 6.16 Dendritic Cell Cancer Vaccines: Key Drivers and Restraints
Figure 7.1 Vaccinogen: Funding Instances (USD Million)
Figure 7.2 OncoVAX: Historical Timeline 
Figure 7.3 OncoVAX: Production Process
Figure 7.4 OncoVAX: Dosage Regimen
Figure 7.5 Vigil: Historical Timeline
Figure 7.6 NewLink Genetics: Revenues, 2012-2016 (USD Million)
Figure 7.7 NewLink Genetics: Funding Instances (USD Million)
Figure 7.8 Algenpantucel- L: Historical Timeline
Figure 7.9 Tumor Cell Cancer Vaccines: Key Drivers and Restraints
Figure 8.1 DCOne: Key Steps Involved
Figure 8.2 AGGREON: Proposed Mechanism of Action
Figure 9.1 Cumulative Funding Instances, Pre-2009-2016
Figure 9.2 Cumulative Funding Amount, Pre-2009-2016 (USD Million)
Figure 9.3 Funding Instances: Distribution by Type, Pre-2009-2016
Figure 9.4 Funding Instances: Distribution by Total Amount Invested, Pre-2009-2016 (USD Million)
Figure 9.5 Leading Players: Distribution by Number of Funding Instances
Figure 9.6 Funding Instances: Distribution by Amount Invested by Type of Funding (USD Million)
Figure 10.1 Cancer Vaccines: Cumulative Trend of Partnerships (Pre-2010-2016)
Figure 10.2 Cancer Vaccines: Distribution by Type of Partnership
Figure 10.3 Cancer Vaccines: Leading Players by Partnerships
Figure 11.1 Overall Dendritic Cell and Tumor Cell Cancer Vaccines Market (USD Million), 2016-2030
Figure 11.2 Overall Dendritic Cell and Tumor Cell Cancer Vaccines Market: Distribution by Type of Cancer Vaccine (USD Million), 2016-2030
Figure 11.3 Evolution of Dendritic Cell and Tumor Cell Cancer Vaccine Market: 2020, 2025 & 2030 (Base Scenario)
Figure 11.4 PROVENGE Sales Forecast, 2016-2030: Base Scenario (USD Million)
Figure 11.5 DCVax-L Sales Forecast, 2017-2030: Base Scenario (USD Million)
Figure 11.6 AGS-003 Sales Forecast, 2018-2030: Base Scenario (USD Million)
Figure 11.7 DCVAC/PCa Sales Forecast, 2020-2030: Base Scenario (USD Million)
Figure 11.8 Vigil Sales Forecast, 2021-2030: Base Scenario (USD Million)
Figure 11.9 AST-VAC1 Sales Forecast, 2022-2030: Base Scenario (USD Million)
Figure 11.10 M-VAX Sales Forecast, 2022-2030: Base Scenario (USD Million)
Figure 11.11 ICT-107 Sales Forecast, 2023-2030: Base Scenario (USD Million)
Figure 11.12 OncoVAX Sales Forecast, 2025-2030: Base Scenario (USD Million)
Figure 11.13 MX-225 Sales Forecast, 2026-2030: Base Scenario (USD Million)
Figure 12.1 Dendritic Cell and Tumor Cell Cancer Vaccines: Development Landscape
Figure 12.2 Dendritic Cell Cancer Vaccines: Developer Landscape
Figure 12.3 Tumor Cell Cancer Vaccines: Developer Landscape
Figure 12.4 Dendritic Cell and Tumor Cell Cancer Vaccines: Analysis by Cancer Type
Figure 12.5 Dendritic Cell and Tumor Cell Cancer Vaccines: Technology Landscape
Figure 12.6 Dendritic Cell and Tumor Cell Cancer Vaccines Market: Conservative, Base and Optimistic Forecast Scenarios, 2016-2030 (USD Million)

List of Tables

Table 4.1 Cancer Vaccines: Potential Antigen Targets
Table 5.1 Cancer Vaccines: Pipeline
Table 5.2 Cancer Vaccines: Pipeline (Other Vaccines)
Table 6.1 Dendritic Cell Cancer Vaccines: Pipeline 
Table 6.2 Dendreon Corporation: Patent Portfolio
Table 6.3 Dendreon Corporation: Cancer Vaccine Portfolio
Table 6.4 PROVENGE: Current Status of Development
Table 6.5 PROVENGE: Clinical Trials
Table 6.6 PROVENGE: Phase III Clinical Trial Endpoints (NCT00779402, NCT00065442, NCT01133704, NCT00005947)
Table 6.7 PROVENGE: Phase II Clinical Trial Endpoints (NCT01431391, NCT01338012, NCT01487863, NCT00715104)
Table 6.8 PROVENGE: Phase II Clinical Trial Endpoints (NCT01477749, NCT01981122, NCT00901342, NCT01804465)
Table 6.9 PROVENGE: Phase II Clinical Trial Endpoints (NCT00715078, NCT01706458, NCT02159950, NCT00849290, NCT01833208)
Table 6.10 JW CreaGene: Patent Portfolio
Table 6.11 JW CreaGene: Cancer Vaccine Portfolio
Table 6.12 CreaVax-RCC: Clinical Trials
Table 6.13 CreaVax-HCC: Current Status of Development
Table 6.14 CreaVax-HCC: Clinical Trials
Table 6.15 CreaVax-HCC: Clinical Trial Endpoints
Table 6.16 Oncobiomed: Cancer Vaccine Portfolio
Table 6.17 TAPCells: Clinical Trials and Results
Table 6.18 Argos Therapeutics: Patent Portfolio
Table 6.19 Argos Therapeutics: Cancer Vaccine Portfolio
Table 6.20 AGS-003: Current Status of Development
Table 6.21 AGS-003: Clinical Trials
Table 6.22 AGS-003: Clinical Trial Endpoints
Table 6.23 ImmunoCellular Therapeutics: Patent Portfolio
Table 6.24 ImmunoCellular Therapeutics: Cancer Vaccine Portfolio
Table 6.25 ICT-107: Phases of Treatment Regimen
Table 6.26 ICT-107: Current Status of Development
Table 6.27 ICT-107: Clinical Trials
Table 6.28 ICT-107: Clinical Trial Endpoints
Table 6.29 Northwest Biotherapeutics: Patent Portfolio
Table 6.30 Northwest Biotherapeutics: Cancer Vaccine Portfolio
Table 6.31 DCVax-L: Current Status of Development
Table 6.32 DCVax-L: Clinical Trials
Table 6.33 DCVax-L: Clinical Trial Endpoints
Table 6.34 SOTIO: Patent Portfolio
Table 6.35 SOTIO: Cancer Vaccine Portfolio
Table 6.36 DCVAC/PCa: Current Status of Development
Table 6.37 DCVAC/PCa: Clinical Trials
Table 6.38 DCVAC/PCa: Clinical Trial Endpoints (NCT02111577, NCT02105675, NCT02107391)
Table 6.39 DCVAC/PCa: Clinical Trial Endpoints (NCT02107430, NCT02107404, NCT02137746)
Table 7.1 Tumor Cell Cancer Vaccines: Pipeline
Table 7.2 Vaccinogen: Patent Portfolio
Table 7.3 Vaccinogen: Cancer Vaccine Portfolio
Table 7.4 OncoVAX: Current Status of Development
Table 7.5 OncoVAX: Clinical Trials
Table 7.6 OncoVAX: Ongoing Clinical Trials
Table 7.7 OncoVAX: Results of Completed Clinical Trials
Table 7.8 Gradalis: Patent Portfolio
Table 7.9 Gradalis: Cancer Vaccine Portfolio
Table 7.10 Vigil: Current Status of Development
Table 7.11 Vigil: Clinical Trials
Table 7.12 Vigil: Clinical Trial Endpoints (Ovarian Cancer)
Table 7.13 Vigil: Clinical Trial Endpoints (Ewing’s Sarcoma)
Table 7.14 Vigil: Clinical Trial Endpoints (NSCLC)
Table 7.15 Vigil: Clinical Trial Endpoints (Melanoma)
Table 7.16 NewLink Genetics: Patent Portfolio
Table 7.17 NewLink Genetics: Cancer Vaccine Portfolio
Table 7.18 Algenpantucel-L: Clinical Trials
Table 7.19 Algenpantucel-L: Clinical Trial Endpoints
Table 7.20 Tergenpumatucel-L: Clinical Trials
Table 7.21 Tergenpumatucel-L: Clinical Trial Endpoints
Table 8.1 Asterias Biotherapeutics: Cancer Vaccine Portfolio
Table 8.2 AVAX Technologies: Cancer Vaccine Portfolio
Table 8.3 DCPrime: Cancer Vaccine Portfolio
Table 8.4 Heat Biologics: Cancer Vaccine Portfolio
Table 8.5 Immunicum: Cancer Vaccine Portfolio
Table 8.6 XEME Biopharma: Cancer Vaccine Portfolio
Table 9.1 Cancer Vaccines: Funding Instances
Table 9.2 Cancer Vaccines Market: Types of Funding Instances, Pre-2009-2016
Table 10.1 Cancer Vaccines: Partnerships 
Table 11.1 Cancer Vaccines: Expected Timelines of Marketed / Late Stage Therapies
Table 11.2 PROVENGE: Target Patient Population
Table 11.3 DCVax-L: Target Patient Population
Table 11.4 AGS-003: Target Patient Population
Table 11.5 DCVAC/PCa: Target Patient Population
Table 11.6 Vigil: Target Patient Population
Table 11.7 AST-VAC1: Target Patient Population
Table 11.8 M-VAX: Target Patient Population
Table 11.9 ICT-107: Target Patient Population
Table 11.10 OncoVAX: Target Patient Population
Table 11.11 MX-225: Target Patient Population
Table 14.1 Global Cancer Incidence: Distribution by Type of Cancer
Table 14.2 Lung Cancer: Estimated New Cases in 2015 (Thousands)
Table 14.3 Breast Cancer: Estimated New Cases in 2015 (Thousands)
Table 14.4 Colorectal Cancer: Estimated New Cases in 2015 (Thousands)
Table 14.5 Cancer Vaccines: Distribution by Type of Vaccine
Table 14.6 Cancer Vaccines: Distribution by Phase of Development
Table 14.7 Cancer Vaccines: Distribution by Phase of Development (Marketed / PIII / PII / PI / Preclinical)
Table 14.8 Cancer Vaccines: Distribution by Therapeutic Area
Table 14.9 Cancer Vaccines: Distribution by Hematological Cancers and Type of Vaccine
Table 14.10 Cancer Vaccines: Distribution by Non-Hematological Cancers and Type of Vaccine
Table 14.11 Cancer Vaccines: Distribution by Type of Donor
Table 14.12 Dendreon Corporation: Revenues, 2010-2013 (USD Million)
Table 14.13 PROVENGE: Historical Sales, 2011-2015 (USD Million)
Table 14.14 Argos Therapeutics: Revenues, 2012-2016 (USD Million)
Table 14.15 Argos Therapeutics: Funding Instances (USD Million)
Table 14.16 ImmunoCellular Therapeutics: Funding Instances (USD Million)
Table 14.17 Northwest Biotherapeutics: Revenue, 2011-2015 (USD Million)
Table 14.18 Northwest Biotherapeutics: Funding Instances (USD Million)
Table 14.19 PPF Group: Revenues, 2011-2015 (EUR Billion)
Table 14.20 Vaccinogen: Funding Instances (USD Million)
Table 14.21 NewLink Genetics: Revenues, 2012-2016 (USD Million)
Table 14.22 NewLink Genetics: Funding Instances (USD Million)
Table 14.23 Cumulative Funding Instances, Pre-2009-2016
Table 14.24 Cumulative Funding Amount, Pre-2009-2016 (USD Million)
Table 14.25 Funding Instances: Distribution by Type, Pre-2009-2016
Table 14.26 Funding Instances: Distribution by Total Amount Invested, Pre-2009-2016 (USD Million)
Table 14.25 Leading Players: Distribution by Number of Funding Instances
Table 14.26 Cancer Vaccines: Cumulative Trend of Partnerships (Pre-2010-2016)
Table 14.27 Cancer Vaccines: Distribution by Type of Partnership
Table 14.28 Cancer Vaccines: Leading Players by Partnerships
Table 14.29 Overall Dendritic Cell and Tumor Cell Cancer Vaccines Market (USD Million), 2016-2030
Table 14.30 Overall Dendritic Cell and Tumor Cell Cancer Vaccine Market: Distribution by Type of Cancer Vaccine (USD Million), 2016-2030
Table 14.31 PROVENGE Sales Forecast, 2016-2030: Conservative Scenario, Base Scenario and Optimistic Scenario (USD Million)
Table 14.32 DCVax-L Sales Forecast, 2017-2030: Conservative Scenario, Base Scenario and Optimistic Scenario (USD Million)
Table 14.33 AGS-003 Sales Forecast, 2018-2030: Conservative Scenario, Base Scenario and Optimistic Scenario (USD Million)
Table 14.34 DCVAC/PCa Sales Forecast, 2020-2030: Conservative Scenario, Base Scenario and Optimistic Scenario (USD Million)
Table 14.35 Vigil Sales Forecast, 2021-2030: Conservative Scenario, Base Scenario and Optimistic Scenario (USD Million)
Table 14.36 AST-VAC1 Sales Forecast, 2022-2030: Conservative Scenario, Base Scenario and Optimistic Scenario (USD Million)
Table 14.37 M-VAX Sales Forecast, 2022-2030: Conservative Scenario, Base Scenario and Optimistic Scenario (USD Million)
Table 14.38 ICT-107 Sales Forecast, 2023-2030: Conservative Scenario, Base Scenario and Optimistic Scenario (USD Million)
Table 14.39 OncoVAX Sales Forecast, 2025-2030: Conservative Scenario, Base Scenario and Optimistic Scenario (USD Million)
Table 14.40 MX-225 Sales Forecast, 2026-2030: Base Scenario (USD Million)
Table 14.41 Dendritic Cell and Tumor Cell Cancer Vaccines Market: Conservative, Base and Optimistic Forecast Scenarios, 2016-2030 (USD Million)

Listed Companies

The following companies and organizations have been mentioned in the study.

  1. Abramson Cancer Center
  2. Accelovance
  3. Accord Research
  4. Activartis Biotech
  5. Adaptive Biotechnologies
  6. Aduro Biotech
  7. Alliance Foundation Trials (AFT)
  8. American International Radio
  9. American Red Cross Society
  10. Ames Seed Capital
  11. Amphera
  12. Aptiv Solutions
  13. Argos Therapeutics
  14. Artwell Biotech
  15. Aspire Capital
  16. Asset Management Ventures
  17. Asterias Biotherapeutics
  18. Aurora BioPharma
  19. Aurora Funds
  20. AVAX Technologies
  21. Bar Elan University of Israel
  22. Basic Pharma
  23. Baylor College of Medicine (BCM)
  24. Beijing Tricision Biotherapeutics
  25. Benitec Biopharma
  26. Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Centre
  27. BioLife Solutions
  28. Biomira
  29. BioSante Pharmaceuticals 
  30. BioTime
  31. BioTime Acquisition
  32. Brightline Ventures
  33. Bristol-Myers Squibb
  34. Bundang CHA General Hospital 
  35. Caisse de dépôt et placement du Québec
  36. Caladrius BioSciences
  37. Caliber Biotherapeutics
  38. California Institute for Regenerative Medicine (CIRM)
  39. California Institute of Technology
  40. Canadian Brain Tumour Consortium (CBTC)
  41. Cancer Research Technology (CRT)
  42. CANCER RESEARCH UK
  43. Cancer Treatment Centers of America (CTCA)
  44. Cascadian Therapeutics
  45. Cedars-Sinai Medical Centre
  46. Cell Therapy Catapult
  47. Celldex Therapeutics
  48. Cellin Technologies
  49. CELLMED Research
  50. Champions Biotechnology
  51. Charles University
  52. Chicagoland Investors
  53. Chiltern International
  54. China BioPharma Capital I
  55. Chongqing Lummy Pharmaceutical
  56. CiMaas
  57. City of Hope Comprehensive Cancer Center
  58. Clinipace Worldwide
  59. Clough Capital Partners 
  60. Cognate Bioservices
  61. CORFO
  62. CruCell
  63. CryoPort
  64. CyTuVax
  65. Dana Farber Cancer Center
  66. DanDrit Biotech
  67. Danube Hospital Vienna
  68. DCPrime
  69. Delta-Vir
  70. Dendreon Corporation 
  71. Department of Defense (CDMRP)
  72. Department of Immunology of the 2nd Medical School of Charles University
  73. Dong-A ST
  74. Drexel University
  75. Duke University
  76. Dutch Ministry of Health, Welfare and Sports
  77. Ehime University Hospital
  78. Elios Therapeutics
  79. Emperor Franz-Josef Hospital Vienna
  80. ES Cell International Pte
  81. European Medicines Agency (EMA)
  82. European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC)
  83. Feldkirch State Hospital
  84. Ferrer International
  85. FONNDEF
  86. Forbion Capital
  87. Foresite Capital Management
  88. Franklin Advisers
  89. Fraunhofer Institute for Cell Therapy and Immunology
  90. FUJIFILM Diosynth Biotechnologies
  91. Genentech
  92. Geron Corporation
  93. GISCAD Foundation
  94. Gradalis
  95. Green Cross Corporation
  96. GSK
  97. Guangzhou Trinomab Biotech
  98. Hakutokai Takao Hospital
  99. Heat Biologics
  100. Horizon Technology Finance Corporation
  101. ICON
  102. Immatics Biotechnologies
  103. Immunicum
  104. ImmunoCellular Therapeutics
  105. Immunotherapy of Cancer (ITOC)
  106. Innovation Agency
  107. Innsbruck Medical University
  108. Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG)
  109. Institute of Inorganic Chemistry and the Institute of Chemistry of Polymers
  110. Intersouth Partners
  111. Intracel Corporation
  112. Invetech
  113. Iowa Economic Development Authority (IEDA)
  114. Iowa State University Research Park Corporation (ISURP)
  115. Janssen Pharmaceuticals
  116. Janus Capital Management
  117. Jennison Associates
  118. Jikei University School of Medicine
  119. Johannes Kepler University Linz
  120. Johns Hopkins University (JHU)
  121. Johnson & Johnson Development Corporation (JJDC)
  122. JW CreaGene
  123. Karolinska University Hospital
  124. King’s College Hospital
  125. Kirin Brewery Pharmaceutical Division
  126. Kiromic
  127. Kitasato Institute Hosptital
  128. Kyowa Hakko Kirin
  129. Laboratorio Pablo Cassara
  130. Leaders in Oncology Care (LOC)
  131. Lumira Capital
  132. Maastricht University Medical Centre
  133. Mary Crowley Cancer Research Center 
  134. Masarik University Brno
  135. Massachusetts Biotechnology Council (MassBio)
  136. Maxim Group
  137. Mayo Clinic
  138. MD Anderson Cancer Centre
  139. Medical Corporation Hakutokai
  140. Medical Corporation Isokai
  141. Medical School of Charles University 
  142. Medical University of Graz
  143. Medical University of Hannover 
  144. Medical University of Vienna
  145. Medigene Immunotherapies
  146. Medinet
  147. Merck
  148. Merix Bioscience
  149. Midwest Melanoma Partnership (MMP)
  150. Mizuho capital
  151. MNX Global Logistics
  152. MolecuVax
  153. Morningside Group
  154. Morningside Ventures
  155. National Cancer Institute
  156. National Center for Global Health and Medicine
  157. National Center for Global Health and Medicine
  158. National Health Service (NHS)
  159. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE)
  160. National Institutes of Health (NIH)
  161. National University Corporation Kyushu University
  162. National University of Singapore (NUS)
  163. NeoStem
  164. Neovii Biotech
  165. NewLink Genetics
  166. Northwest Biotherapeutics
  167. Novartis
  168. NovaRx Corporation
  169. Novella Clinical
  170. Oncobiomed
  171. OncoSec Medical
  172. Oncothyreon
  173. OrbiMed
  174. Oxford Finance
  175. Pan Am Cancer Treatment Center
  176. Paul Ehrlich Institute (PEI)
  177. PDC*line pharma
  178. PerImmune
  179. Pfizer
  180. PharmaCell
  181. Pharmacenter Hungary
  182. Pharmstandard International
  183. Piedmont Angel Network
  184. Pique Therapeutics
  185. PPF Group
  186. Prima BioMed
  187. Progenitor Cell Therapy (PCT)
  188. ProImmune
  189. ProVaccine 
  190. Pure MHC
  191. Regeneus
  192. Research Center for Molecular Medicine of the Austrian Academy of Sciences
  193. RimAsia Capital Partners
  194. Roche
  195. Rockefeller University
  196. Rudolfstiftung Hospital Vienna
  197. Sächsische Aufbau Bank
  198. Sahlgrenska University Hospital
  199. Saint-Gobain
  200. Salzburg Provincial Hospital
  201. Sarah Cannon Research UK 
  202. Saronic Biotechnology
  203. School of Medicine of Keio University
  204. Scottish Medicines Consortium
  205. SDS Capital
  206. Shenzhen Hornetcorn Bio-technology Company
  207. Significo Research 
  208. SIGNIFIX
  209. Socius Life Sciences Capital Group
  210. SOTIO
  211. Square 1 Bank
  212. St. Anna Children's Cancer Research
  213. Stanford University
  214. State Institute for Drug Control
  215. Swissmedic
  216. Sydys Corporation
  217. TapImmune
  218. Targepeutics
  219. Technomark Life Sciences
  220. tella
  221. Tessa Therapeutics
  222. The Immune Response Corporation
  223. The Investment Syndicate (TIS)
  224. The Vaccine & Gene Therapy Institute of Florida (VGTI)
  225. Theradex
  226. Therapeutic Solutions International
  227. TheraTest Laboratories
  228. TI Pharma 
  229. Tianyi Lummy International Holdings Group
  230. Torrey Pines Institute for Molecular Studies
  231. TransCure bioServices
  232. Trianta Immunotherapies 
  233. TVAX Biomedical
  234. TVM Capital
  235. UCB
  236. United States Food and Drug Administration (USFDA)
  237. United Therapeutics
  238. UniVax
  239. University Hospital Motol of Prague
  240. University of British Columbia
  241. University of Chile
  242. University of Maryland
  243. University of Minnesota
  244. University of Pennsylvania
  245. University of Pittsburgh
  246. University of Southern California
  247. University of Texas
  248. University of Zurich Medical School
  249. Uppsala University
  250. US Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO)
  251. Vaccinogen
  252. Valeant Pharmaceuticals
  253. Van Herk Group
  254. Västra Götalandsregionen
  255. Wagner-Jauregg Linz
  256. Wasatch Funds Trust
  257. Wilmington Investors Network
  258. Woodford Investment Management
  259. WuXi AppTec
  260. XEME Biopharma

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