Monkeypox Vaccine: Disease Overview, Transmission and Diagnosis

Monkeypox is a viral disease, which is usually transmitted to humans from animals. The disease is known to have symptoms similar to those observed in smallpox patients, although it is considered to be clinically less severe. In recent years, monkey pox has emerged as a prominent orthopox virus affecting public health. In May 2022, multiple cases of the disease were reported in more than 100 non-endemic countries, thereby making monkeypox a disease of global concern.  Consequently, in July 2022, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared global monkey pox outbreak a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC).  In fact, till date, over 84,000 cases of the disease have been reported, globally. Following the outbreak, a number of companies have emerged, offering the monkeypox vaccine as a therapeutic solution to tackle the disease at a global scale.

Roots Analysis - Signs And Symptoms of Monkey Pox

Monkeypox infection can be divided into two periods:

  1. Invasion Period (0 to 5 days): This phase is characterized by fever, intense headache, lymphadenopathy (swelling of the lymph nodes), back pain, myalgia (muscle aches) and intense asthenia (lack of energy)
  2. Skin Eruption (begins within 1 to 3 days of appearance of fever): Monkeypox rash affects the face (in 95% of cases), palms of the hands and soles of the feet (in 75% of cases). Oral mucous membranes (in 70% of cases), genitalia (30%), and conjunctivae (20%), as well as the cornea are also affected. Evolution of monkey pox rash is shown below:
Roots Analysis - Prognosis of Monkeypox

History of Disease Outbreaks

Roots Analysis - History of Disease Outbreaks

Monkeypox Vaccine: Disease Transmission

Monkeypox virus can be transmitted from animals to humans as well as from humans to humans.

  1. Animals to Humans Transmission:

Zootnotic transmission can occur from direct contact with the bodily fluids, blood or cutaneous / mucosal lesions of infected animals. Additionally, eating inadequately cooked meat and other animal products of infected animals is a possible risk factor.

Roots Analysis Monkey Pox Animals to Humans Transmission
  • Humans to Humans Transmission:

Human-to-human transmission can result from close contact with respiratory secretions, skin lesions of an infected person or recently contaminated objects. Transmission can also occur via the placenta from mother to fetus or during close contact during and after birth.

Roots Analysis Monkey Pox Humans to Humans Transmission

Monkeypox Vaccine: Disease Diagnosis

Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is the preferred laboratory test for monkey pox virus detection due to its accuracy and sensitivity. Optimal diagnostic samples for monkey pox diagnosis are collected from skin lesions; these include roof or fluid from vesicles and pustules, and dry crusts. Additionally, biopsy samples can also be collected for disease diagnosis.

Roots Analysis Monkey Pox Disease Diagnosis

Concluding Remarks

With only a few monkeypox vaccines currently approved or granted special access for the treatment / prevention of the monkeypox disease, the existing demand for an effective monkeypox vaccine and therapeutic is still unmet. In response to the monkey pox outbreak, active research and development efforts are underway to develop various monkeypox therapeutics and vaccine for the treatment and prevention of monkeypox. Presently, more than 25 monkeypox vaccine are commercialized / under development for the treatment and prevention of monkeypox. With the increase in the number of disease cases globally, the demand for testing has also increased. At present, more than 165 diagnostic kits are available in the market for the detection of monkeypox virus. The growing cases of monkeypox disease and availability of limited number of therapeutics / vaccines / diagnostic solutions are the key factors driving the growth of the monkeypox treatment market.

You can also download the SAMPLE REPORT on monkeypox vaccine and diagnostic kits by Roots Analysis.